Friday, March 20, 2020

Crucible Monologue essays

Crucible Monologue essays Setting: (The scene opens with Elizabeth and John alone in the cell. Elizabeth has been sent to plea with John so that he will confess and save his life. The cell is lit by the light coming from the rising of the sun through the cold metal bars. The cold morning symbolizes the shivering events that are about to unfold. Both, dressed in rags and looking rather weak. Extremely heavy handcuffs chain both of their wrists together. Elizabeth and John are sitting on a bench holding each others hands, staring into each others eyes. Elizabeth is now three months pregnant, very tired, dirty, and weak. John has grown out a long beard and the only thing keeping him warm at night were the thoughts of his unborn child and loving wife. John begins to speak but Elizabeth cuts him off before he could say a word. She is speaking in a very quite and fragile voice, it seems as though every word is a struggle.) Elizabeth: Oh dearest John, how I have longed to see thee these 3 months past. I have dreamt and prayed for the chance to see thee once more. The nights have been long and cold without thee, the days lonely and sad. I beggeth of thee to confess John. I have gotten word that thou are to be hanged after sunrise. I have been sent to thee as final attempt to plea with thou to save thou life, to save our life together. (She stands up and paces around herself then stops) I am yet six month before my time, and I cannot imagine raising this child without thee. I am aware that if your life is spared by your confession that we will have a lot to work on, but I love thee John. Thou knowest just as well as I know that neither of us deserve to be in here and the town is with us as well. (Elizabeth walks over towards the cell door and leans against it, speaking in a more calm voice) There has been word that the town is speaking of rebellion against the court. The entire town realizes that all of the accusations made from each of the girls, were fr...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Come With

Come With Come With Come With By Maeve Maddox â€Å"I’m going to the movies. Do you want to come with?† A reader in England has noticed that this elliptical use of â€Å"come with† on British television and doesn’t care for it: I find it to be an expression I prefer not to use, as it sounds grammatically wrong and very odd, even though, were I in Germany, I would automatically and happily use the equivalent expression Kommen sie mit. Do you know the age of the English Come with? There is an example in the OED of a 19th century elliptical use of with without an object: in slang use, in reference to liquor means mixed with sugar, having sugar added; usually in phrases hot or cold with. 1836  Ã‚   Dickens Sketches by Boz 1st Ser. I. 84  Ã‚   Two glasses of rum-and-water ‘warm with- ’. 1843  Ã‚   R. S. Surtees Handley Cross I. x. 202  Ã‚   Fatch me up a glass of cold sherry negus with. 1843  Ã‚   R. S. Surtees Handley Cross I. xv. 322  Ã‚   ‘Take a glass of brandy,’ said she ‘hot with? or cold without?’ Where did the modern usage originate? The reader’s mention of German â€Å"Kommen sie mit,† points to the answer. Large numbers of German, Norwegian, Swedish, and Dutch immigrants to the U.S. settled in the midwest, near the Great Lakes. â€Å"Kommen sie mit† migrated into the local English dialect. English is, after all, a Germanic language. Old English mid, meaning â€Å"with,† survived into Middle English and was sometimes spelled mit. Many American speakers dislike the usage as well: Why do people say, â€Å"Can I come with† and â€Å"Do you want to go with†? That â€Å"with† hanging on the end of the sentence has always driven me crazy. That reaction seems a bit extreme. My Chicago relations say it. I find it odd, but endearing. It is, however, a regionalism that has not acquired the status of standard English. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 Examples of Passive Voice (And How To Fix Them)Between vs. In Between50 Synonyms for "Song"

Monday, February 17, 2020

Accounting theory in Australia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Accounting theory in Australia - Essay Example One such standard that has been much debated is the fair value accounting measure. Fair value accounting has gained popularity in the recent years as the standard for measuring assets and liabilities by firms. Although, fair value accounting has been accepted and adopted by firms across the world, it is still considered to be inefficient in its utility. Perhaps it is because of the discrepancy in the financial systems and conceptual frameworks which have given rise to the chaos that is evident in todays corporate environment. In the following discussion the researcher shall discuss the impact of fair value accounting and disclosures based on current accounting standards, conceptual frameworks and theoretical assumptions with the view to enumerate on its viability, utility and efficiency. International accounting standards are broadly divided into the United States’ independent regulators’ approach and the European public ownership approach. The European approach had been based on the theoretical framework that since corporations are usually serve their own profit interest, it is up to the government to curb private monopolies and monitor their activities. On the other hand the US independent commissions for monitoring and enforcing regulation had been developed with the view to give the market economic independency on the premise of laissez faire. Ironically, as Gaffikin (2005) points out, both the systems fail to achieve its objective of regulation as a result of market inefficiency and economic regulation consideration. This led to the development of a regulation system based on interest theory - that is serving both the private and public interests (Gaffikin 2005). Today, accounting standards across the world is based on the US Financial Accounting Standard Board and the International Accounting Standard Board. Australia follows similar measurement

Monday, February 3, 2020

HRD Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

HRD - Essay Example However, in accomplishing this particular objective of long-run sustainability, employee absenteeism rate is argued as a major challenge for Human Resource Managers (HRM) that is quite likely to result in declining productivity of the organisation, increasing conflicts amid the employees and hindered sustainability of the entire organisation (Cascio & Boudreau, 2010). Emphasising the severity of the effects of absenteeism, the discussion henceforth focuses on examining the issue on the basis of critical theoretical explanation. In this regard, various relevant theories have been considered in order to evaluate the factors that contribute towards the increasing the number of employees’ absenteeism rate in the modern day context. Employees’ Absenteeism Rate Employee absenteeism is often attributed as one of the most serious and challenging issues prevailing in organisations today. It is evident that employees are among the key assets for HRM in context to their operationa l efficiency and sustainability. Efficient and dedicated performances of the employees result in higher productivity, which further tends to have favourable impacts on the operations of the business. Conversely, inefficient performance of employees has often been observed to have led to lower productivity, which further contribute to a continuous decline in the company performance altogether. Absenteeism is viewed as a habitual pattern of absence deciphered by employees obstructing them from executing their responsibilities in the most effective manner. It is worth mentioning in this context that according to the modern managerial notion, high absenteeism rate of employees in workplace is often attributed as a by-product of poor work satisfaction owing to lack of motivation and morale (Cascio & Boudreau, 2010). To gain a comprehensive understanding on the increasing rate of employee absenteeism, certain relevant theories and concepts have been explained in the discussion below. Soci al Learning Theory of Employee Self-management Social Learning theory is a particular concept that has been applied in the workplace with the intention to encourage employees towards obtaining adequate learning experiences in their working process. This theory can be observed to be directly relevant with the behaviour and psychology of the employees. The theory basically states that people in the society learn mostly through their personal experiences that are acquired by their presences among others or through social interactions to be more precise. The theory further depicts that people in the society mainly learn by imitating or by observing the approach or actions of others. It is deemed that this theory have both positive and negative aspects associated with it in context to the workplace attitude of employees (French, 2011). According to Bandura (1971), employees in the workplace learn from others in a particular process, which includes attention, retention, reproduction and m otivation. Employees in the workplace is deemed to pay attention to what others do, often without judging the interpersonal differences or the after-effects of such a behaviour. As per the Social Learning theory, absenteeism habits of other employees might also be considered as a factor that attracts employees in the workplace and causes negative effects on their performances. As per this theory, the

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Effects of Austerity Measures on Communities

Effects of Austerity Measures on Communities Socio-economic and political factors identified in the community of Croydon and the links to key concepts and theories from sociology and social policy. Introduction This essay focuses on the socio-economic and political factors identified in the community of Croydon. It sets out to explain how these factors link with key concepts and theories from sociology and social policy and how this impacts on the community. The main focus here is on the factors that have exacerbated the issues faced by the community. Social capital will form the base for most of the arguments and points. The Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary (2008) defines socio-economic as related to the differences between groups of people caused by, mainly their financial situation. It can therefore be argued that these are factors and experiences that form and define these groups of people and also these are the factors that decide whether these groups are condemned to a life of poverty or not. The Community: Croydon (see definition of a community above) Croydon, with a population of three hundred and eighty two thousand (382k) people (www.london.gov.uk) has the second largest population of all the London Boroughs. It also has the largest number of people aged under fifteen numbering 84k. According to Councillor Tony Newman, also the Chair of the Local Strategic Partnership, Croydon is undergoing transformation to become a modern European city and can do better without bad publicity such as knife crime. It is a diverse community with a diverse ethnicity, faiths, sexual orientation and academic standing all working in different jobs to serve various needs of the community. Knife Crime: A bane for the local community The Community of Croydon has been named one of the worst five amongst London Boroughs for knife crime across London. The community is facing unprecedented levels of knife crime which is attributed to budgetary cuts to services that provide social capital to young people and other services such as policing. When the people who police and monitor crime say so, it is difficult to ignore the issue. The Association of Police and Crime Commissioners argues that with reductions in staff levels and support services already made, further budget constraints will lead to difficult questions on how best to structure police forces to respond to changes in crime, and what this would mean for the local service provided to the public. In the month of February 2017 alone, the Mayors Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC) reported 94 knife injuries committed by teenagers under the age of 15. While the Home Office has no precise definition of knife crime, however knife enabled crime includes a variety o f other offences involving a bladed weapon, for example it is an offence to cause or threaten harm with a knife and if used in a robbery or assault, it aggravates the offence. How the Council Gets Its Information on Knife Crime: But before delving deeper into this issue, it is very important to put into perspective how the community of Croydon and local authority gather information on this bane of knife crime and also give a backdrop to the motivating factors that influence the compilation of this information. In 2008 a teenage boy named Shakilus Townsend was stabbed several times by other teenagers in Thornton Heath, a district of Croydon. This culminated in the council instituting an investigation named Scrutiny on Knife Crime to focus on teenagers, perpetrators and victims alike. (Available at Croydon.gov.uk) The Croydon council gathers and obtains information about knife crime through public meetings held with the UK Youth Parliament, vulnerable young people, Metropolitan Police Authority, the Croydon Youth Crime Prevention Strategy and other stakeholders. Meetings are also held with secondary schools, Pupil Referral Units, Head Teachers and the British Broadcasting Corporation. Social Capital: Social Capital has many definitions, but to put into social work context, the simplest definitions that fit in well with social work are used here. Coleman (1990) argues that social capital is defined by its function as it is not a single entity, but a variety of different entities having two characteristics in common: They all consist of some aspect of social structure, and they facilitate certain actions of individuals who are within the structure. However, Brehm and Rahn (1997, p. 999) put it in another way arguing that social capital is the web of cooperative relationships between citizens that facilitate resolution of collective action problems. It can therefore be argued that social capital has an economical value in it and that this value increases the competitive advantage of individuals through networking through organisations like the local authority provided facilities. The World Bank defines social capital as institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a societys social interactions. The World Bank goes on to elaborate by stating that social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society it is the glue that holds them together. While knife crime is one of the major social problems facing this community, this essay seeks to highlight why budgetary cuts, which are a consequence of social capital deprivation, are an indirect consequence of the knife crime coupled with other social issues The Poisoned Chalice of Neo-Liberalism: As social capital has already been defined above, it is important to put it into perspective so that there is an understanding that the reduction in services that provide social capital for the young has come about as a result of neo-liberalism, so there is a link between The Liberal Democrats whose ideological tradition is liberalism, an ideology that favours privatisation, and the contraction of the public sector/services, reinforced by its ideology of neo liberalism on the coat tails of a book titled the Orange Book: Reclaiming Liberalism. Thomson and Thomson (2008) argue that politics plays a fundamentally important role in shaping social work and therefore it could be argued that it is important to buttress some points with an understanding of the role therefore political processes play in social work. Now back to the Liberal Democrats. Nick Clegg later became leader and he would later use his presence and influence in the Coalition to oversee the shutting down of some Sure Star ts childrens centres and Connexions in the name of economic liberalism. This policy also oversaw the privatisation of job seeking being contracted to a private individual operating as if it was under the auspices of the Department of Works and Pension (DWP) using a website under the name Universal Jobmatch where thousands of fake jobs were advertised by a private contractor who was paid for roles which should have been performed by the DWP. Incredibly the scandal which left jobseekers at the mercy of this government approved scam, fizzled out without much fanfare. A lot of jobseekers who were already being deprived of services such as the Connexions had to face the frustration of applying for nonexistent jobs. To put it into context, Connexions was a support service for young people, a service that was meant to help them with advice on topics including education, housing, health, relationships, drugs, and finance. Now these are young people who were most in need. An argument may be developed that says these young people, through a policy of neo-liberalism are likely to develop personal problems and that these personal problems will overlap into a societal problem. These are the apparent knock on effects. Political Austerity, a function of neo-liberalism affecting social capital: Battle and Lewis argue that a persons education is closely linked to their life chances, income and well being. When the Conservative and Liberal coalition government came into power, they made tackling our record debts, as they called it then, one of their cornerstones in dealing with debt. The Liberal Democrats are well remembered by most students for reneging on a policy to scrap university fees altogether. Not only did they renege on this policy, but they went on and signed up to an agreement to actually allow institutions to charge fees up to nine thousand pounds. Now a prospective student from a deprived background would have seen the prospect of finishing university with a debt of over thirty thousand pounds not such an attractive prospect. The Croydon Guardian newspaper interviewed 4 teenagers aged 16 to 18 to try and get to the bottom of the scourge of knife crime in their community. One of the teenagers had this to say: Adults should give children more job opportunities and training. This will attract other teenagers too. We need to ask what they like doing so they have the chance to do what they want. I was part of a gang, but for what? Sometimes there is no explanation. Unquote. The other three teenagers also had more or less the same to say. Another major point of concern that came out of the interviews was that young people carry knifes as a form of defence due to the large numbers of gangs dominating the community. They feel they have to protect themselves. Mills (1959) links what happens to an individuals life with social structures of the wider world. Mills states that the private troubles of men/women effectively trapped them in their lives as they understood only their immediate personal difficulties rather than understanding what was happening to them particularly in reference to historic and histories of their surroundings. These young men and women feel trapped. It can therefore be argued that if it were not for cuts that affect the number of police in the streets, these teenagers would not feel the need to carry knifes as the police would be there to protect them. Unfortunately this policy of austerity does not affect teenagers only.   Some Sure Starts were at the receiving end of these cuts as real spending fell, so states the Nuffield report. To put it into context again there is a need to understand the core purpose of Sure Starts. They were actually developed in consultation with the Childcare Act 2006 and therefore it could be argued that their closure indirectly impinges on the development of children. Their core purpose, as the government states, is to make available universal and targeted early childhood services either by providing the services at the centre itself or by providing advice and assistance to parents, mothers and fathers, and prospective parents in accessing services provided elsewhere. Local authorities must ensure that childrens centres provide some activities for young children on site. What can be argued here is that a child who was nine in 2010 when the coalition government took power is now a teenager and poorer i n terms of education and social capital due to the austerity which affected the number of these centres made available. The knock on effect is that this cycle is being repeated. If society is going to deprive young people of socialisation at an early age surely what can be expected of the this generation in terms of what they contribute to the well being of a community and the society at large? Cunningham and Cunningham (2009) observe that troubles of individuals are inherently personal and unique however they happen as a result of specific set of socio-economic and political circumstances. Again the Nuffield report, already mentioned above, goes on to state that the issues that are the principal concern of its inquiry are social outcomes, poverty and inequality and argue that the Coalition had inherited a better situation than its predecessor Labour whose social programmes had delivered expanded public services. Socio-economic gaps in access to services had decreased. Economic and social outcomes, such as pupil achievements and child poverty, had also generally not improved, while differences between the most and least deprived social groups narrowed, the report goes on to   state. The Deprivation of Social Capital: It can be argued, taking in all the information above, that the exercise of shutting down some Sure Starts and Connexions branches deprived teenagers and other young adults opportunities that could have prepared them better industry leaders of tomorrow. It deprived them of opportunities to socialise and share ideas with like minded peers. The legislations attempt to stop people from carrying knives has not been that successful due to the fact that knife crime is still prevalent in Croydon. Government has imposed penalties of up to 4 years maximum for carrying a knife however this legislation is evidently not a deterrent as knife crime is still prevalent in that community. The law allows for pressure groups to work in collaboration with the society and the police in tackling the crime. However according to Hill and Irving (2009) choices of what pressure groups can work on are dictated by local interests. One can see how the weakness of an individual voter is strengthened through belonging to an influential group. Hill and Irving go on to argue that direct interventions in elections motivated by local issues are rare. This essentially means come election time the issues that really matter to the community are put in the back burner hence the cycle of these social problems still persist unabated. Charities and the MET: Campaigns such as No Knifes Better Lives look at the individual, putting pressure on the family to change with very little change in the role of the state in improving the economic circumstances of the victims. The No Knifes Better Lives approachs challenge is that it focuses on the implement used to commit the crime ignoring the causes or underlying socio economic circumstances. One can argue that if their campaign was focused on getting rid of poverty, access to equal opportunities and education, in the long run this might reduce knife crime. Another organisation helping young people refrain from using knife is the Turnaround centre. This is a place where young people can drop in and ask for advice and support. Incredibly these organisations rely on the magnanimity of well wishers for funding which actually limits their scope of how much they can do. According to the census figures, Croydon has one of the largest Afro/Caribbean populations. This makes it very difficult for the police to enforce the Stop and Search due to the McPherson reports branding of the Metropolitan Police (MET) being institutionally racist, something the MET actually admitted. To compound that, when the practice was in use it disproportionately targeted Black males. So this dilemma has made the police lose out on an otherwise valuable crime fighting tool. The police are currently working together with many stakeholders in addressing problems in the community. In the same breath they should have a social worker working with them and becoming an acceptable face of the solution to the community. One can argue that social workers are always at arms length dealing with issues, rather should be on the frontline instead of being reactive in dealing with societal issues. According to the Health and Care Professions Councils (HCPC) standards of proficiency (SoP), social workers must be able to recognise and respond appropriately to unexpected situations and manage uncertainty. It could be argued that this might just be possible in an idealistic world but not in a profession that faces so much austerity cuts. Social workers, by the nature of their profession, have the unique advantage of seeing and understanding how poverty and discrimination affect lives and thereby communities. So it is a big ask for them to strike a balance between meeting SoP and at the same time lawfully practice. It is therefore imperative that social work should be a protected profession, protected from cuts forever. The social work profession, according to the International Federation of Social Workers, expects the practitioners to promote social change, help to foster human relationships and in the process liberate people through empowerment. Again it becomes very difficult, o ne may argue, that you can operate in an environment that prioritises money above the welfare of human beings. Recommendations: The Croydon council has recommended the continuous review of developing a range of services for all young people in Croydon. Specifically, investment in expanded opening hours for places where young people can be into the late afternoon and late at night during summer months should be explored and future opportunities for younger children actively considered. Another important recommendation was that the local authority should give consideration to the creation of a Croydon Youth Council as this could be used as a vehicle or channel for the youth to influence the decisions that affect them. Policing along with social work should and must be protected from budgetary cuts as they are at the forefront of fighting crime. Conclusion: Eliot Spitzer the former American Democratic politician once remarked The world has conducted a macro-economic experiment since the cataclysm of 2008. In Europe, the fans of austerity have had their chance, and the results have been a disaster. Unquote. This essay has stated the case why austerity measures, in other words, social and economic policies are impacting on the day to day lives of people mostly young people. The current government and its predecessor the Conservative/Liberal coalition continue to deprive young people of opportunities that could have made them better people or leaders of tomorrow and unfortunately their policies will continue to impact badly on how social workers deliver their duties in the communities they serve, as they restrict their ability to practice. People are losing services essential to their well being and that cannot be good for the well being of their mental state. The British Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics states that principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to the work of a social worker; it can therefore be argued, how can social workers foster a just environment when they have to work under an austerity environment which is unjust and cannot support them. This essay argues that austerity is state sponsored human rights abuse. Words: 2985 A  reflective summary response to the feedback from peers on the formative presentation Bruce (2013) argues that the process of reflection can be described as the detailed thinking you may undertake about an event or experience, and the new perspective or knowledge you gain as a result of this process. The compliments my group received from peers about how well we worked together as a unit resonated well with and reinforced the theoretical framework stages of group development described by Tuckman (1965) as norming, forming, storming and performing. Our group was not that difficult to form as we already had developed interpersonal relations through meeting in the canteen and lectures. Interestingly, due to being the eldest in the group, I seemed to command respect from group members as they presumed being older made me wiser. However some members felt age should not be a criterion for choosing a group leader. As I had already studied each group members strengths and weaknesses, I simply told them the reasons why they should choose me, at the same time delegating duties for the presentation. Everyone seemed happy with the delegated duties and so the team structure took shape.   At the norming stage we set up a collaborative strategy through a whatsapp group. A member would post their idea of the delegated role then we would all look at it and have our input. We found this to be an excellent medium of communication and sharing of ideas. At this stage we also lost our sixth group member due to pregnancy. Our performance stage appeared to be the easiest as each member wanted the group to succeed. Great and not so great ideas flowed from members as we worked hard to meet the deadline. We complimented each other where it was deserved. It can therefore be argued that the group formation process of our team was an event I have just reflected about. Words: 339 A  short evaluation of an interview undertaken with a professional about their role and experiences of providing services in a community-based organisation. Interviewing a Nurse Assessor When planning for my interview I thought about Egans (2014, pg.136.) use of probes to explore and clarify points of view, decisions and proposals. This gave me an idea about how I was going to probe the nurse so she could engage and tell me in detail the scope of her role and challenges she faces in her role. I was very interested in the direct positive impact she was having on the community hospital too. This community hospital is what could be described, as, argued by   Cunningham and Cunningham (2008) a traditional geographic community due to its location and shared space, proximity and years of shared experience which are seen to have inculcated certain common values and norms and there is a sense of permanence, shared responsibility, duty and mutual support. Adams et al in Brint (1994) argue that an organisation should have valued professionals who combine expertise with the technical capacity to solve problems, particularly major global problems such as health and the environment. My interview was with a Nurse Assessor for an intermediate care services (IMC) in a community hospital. She stated that her role sometimes included working in front of the house, Accident and Emergency (A and E) admissions avoidance and stated that she found this quite overwhelming. I asked why she had to perform a role which appeared to be outside her remit and her response was that even though she had been trained for the role, there was a serious lack of qualified personnel so she and her colleagues had to rotate and share duties. She does not specifically do social care but because they work as a team, she tends to sign post to social care if patients do not fit the IMC criteria for rehabilitation. This role is currently evolving as they are working as an integrated discharge team that is, working in teams with social workers and hospital discharge coordinators to facilitate early and timely discharges. It was quite interesting how her role processes are not that dissimilar to those of a social worker, starting with assessment, moving through to planning, intervention finally monitoring, evaluation and review. Adams et al (2009). Presently the team is transitioning from using social care policies towards what is called a Trusted Assessor who can do all three roles, meaning that they will have to work within social care policies and legislation while assimilating the trusted assessor concept. It is a work in progress. The challenges related to her role are mainly friction in teams working collaboratively and no clear cut boundaries, hence blurring the roles. Above all, keeping up with the pace of the changing face and needs in Health and Social Care and the aging population was another challenge they had to deal with as a team on a regular basis. Demand outstrips supply and the need for services has been outstripped by lack of growth in infrastructure. She felt that her professional values were being compromised by the pressures of work. Reflecting on what she had told me, I referred to Hertzberg et al (2010) who argued that work motivation is intrinsic to the job and that conditions of employment and relations in the workplace have the capacity to demotivate. In this new structure of collaborative care (integrated discharge teams) she works with three social workers in the team. They work together to facilitate.   She refers and discusses relevant cases with them and they in turn will discuss and refer some patients to her if they feel that their needs can be met in intermediate care even if it means accessing IMC to reduce the care package. After the interview I was left with a myriad of dilemmas, but the one that stuck to my mind was how the generality of healthcare professionals are victims of legislation probably designed by people who spend most of their time looking for mistakes than solutions, as can be seen by the bad press that they usually get. Healthcare workers are supposed to abide by and adhere to certain statutes yet their professional competencies are being hindered by a lack of resources. (Adams, et al. pg 92 2009) Compared to its peers in the G7, a group of large developed economies, the UK is ranked sixth on healthcare expenditure. (Office of National Statistics, 2017) Words: 743 References: Adams, R. Dominelli, L. and Payne, M. (2009) Social work: themes, issues and critical debates. 3RD edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Bruce, L.   (2013) Reflective practice for social workers: a handbook for developing professional confidence.   Maidenhead: McGraw Hill Open University Press Coleman, James S. 1990. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Cunningham, J. and Cunningham, S. (2008) Sociology and social work. Exeter: Learning Matters. Egan, G. (2002) The skilled helper: a problem-management and opportunity-development approach to helping   7th edn. Pacific Grove: Brooks Cole Hertzberg, F., Mausner, B., and Snyder, B. B. (2010) The motivation to work. 12th edn. London: Transaction Publishers. Hill, M. and Irving, Z. (2009) Understanding social policy. 8th edn. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell https://www.basw.co.uk/ (Accessed: 15 March 2017) https://www.london.gov.uk/in-my-area/croydon (Accessed: 18 March 2017) http://www.croydonguardian.co.uk/news/knifecrime/ (Accessed: 15 March 2017) https://www.croydon.gov.uk/sites/default/files/articles/downloads/knife1.pdf   (Accessed: 21 March 2017). https://www.croydon.gov.uk/sites/default/files/articles/downloads/demographics.pdf (Accessed 15 March 2017) https://www.croydon.gov.uk/community/equality/lovecroydon/facts (Accessed 12 March 2017) https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/273768/childrens_centre_stat_guidance_april_2013.pdf (Accessed: 15 March 2017) http://ifsw.org/get-involved/global-definition-of-social-work/ (Accessed: 14 March 2017 https://www.london.gov.uk/in-my-area/croydon (Accessed: 18 March 2017) http://noknivesbetterlives.com/parents (Accessed: 15 March 2017) http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/files/RR04_SUMMARY.pdf (Accessed: 21 March 2017) https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmhaff/112/11204.htm (Accessed: 20 March 2017) https://www.london.gov.uk/what-we-do/mayors-office-policing-and-crime-mopac/data-and-research/crime%20/gangs-dashboard Office for National Statistics (2017) Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/ (Accessed: 20 March 2017). https://www.worldbank.org/ (Accessed: 20 March 2017)

Friday, January 17, 2020

Health is the greatest wealth Essay

Nobody would deny the importance of health. If a person suffers from any disorder, his mind suffers with it and he is not be able to make much progress in career, in getting knowledge and so on. Besides, people with bad health are unfit to person required duties in social and family life. There are certain lows in different spheres of life, the lows of health deserve particular attention. They are very simple and even a child can learn them. One of the most essential lows of health is perfect cleanliness. Taking a bath or having a shower every day is a must. Because the human skin is full of minute pores, cells, blood vessels and nerves. It should always be clean because it breathes the way the lungs do. Besides, it’s always very pleasant to look at one who is tidy and clean. That’s why there should be an indisputable rule for everyone: to keep one’s skin clean, to brush the teeth thoroughly, to have the hair neatly combed, the finger-nails in order. Then a person should keep in his mind that a constant supply of pure fresh air is one of the main conditions for having a good health. But unfortunately, the ecological situation in many reasons is threatening, that’s why people should go to the countryside for the fresh air as often as they can. Everybody should keep in his mind that exercises warm, invigorate and purify the body. The best way of getting exercises is to engaged in some work that’s useful and at the same time interesting to the mind. Some people work very late. And they continue working at home. Late hours are very harmful to the health because they exhaust the nervous system. People should keep to the following principle: â€Å"Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise† What and how much people eat is also a great importance. Our body is continually wasting and needs to be repaired by fresh substance that’s why food should be taken with due regard to the exercise and waste of the body. I can give you some pieces of advice how to eat in the right way, be moderate in eating: don’t overeat, never swallow your food wholesale and abstain from everything that intoxicates, always remember about the evils of intemperance of alcohol. Taking into consideration all things mentioned above we must remember that moderation in eating and drinking, reasonable hours of labor and study, regular exercises, rest, cleanliness lay the foundations for food, health and long life. But, unfortunately, in real life many people can’t or don’t want to keep his health in perfect condition for this or that reason. This fact results in shortened longevity of people. Human health is a fragile structure, influenced by many inner and outer factors. That’s why it should be permanently taking care of. People suffer from different disease starting with the common cold, flu, mumps, insomnia, nose-bleed, dandruff, hiccup and from the more serious one’s sick as heart-attacks, strokes, cancer and AIDS. Many people think that the common old isn’t a very serious disease, but they are mistaken because in every case of being ill-cold viruses weaken the immune system. Unfortunately, there is no cure for the common cold as so far because cold viruses are every changing and there is a great variety of them. Some people don’t pay much attention to minor elements until they became chronic ones. Then, these people go to see the doctor, complain, spend a lot of time and money for medical treatment and, if there is luck, recover. The others prefer not to get ill at all and so take preventive measures by attending fitness clubs, eating healthy food and spending their holidays in  mountain camps or by the rivers. This sort of life-style is cheaper and becomes more and more popular in the West as well as in Russia. Fitness, no doubt, wins the battle with medical clinics, as not to lose health is better than to lose and find again. If you decided to join a fitness club or gym, you should consider many things, connected with the following questions: Are the instructors qualified? Is there someone on hand who knows how to give the first aid? Are the facilities clean? Is the equipment well maintained? Is the staff pleasant and helpful? Fitness in general is for everyone; children, men and women of all ages, but you should always consult your doctor before undertaking any exercise problem. Those people, who can’t effort attending fitness club for this or that reason may jog in the morning or to go to a swimming pool at least once a week. Even if a person is healthy there is no guaranty that he might fall ill or his relatives or his friends might fall ill, that’s why we all should know how to help or to deliver the first aid. First aid is terribly important and you can save lives if the right action is taken. If someone isn’t breathing, you must give them artificial respiration. If the person is bleeding, the bleeding must be stopped. Medical help must of course be sought and someone must decide whether the victim can be taken to hospital, or whether, given the nature of their particular accident, the victim should be left alone. On the subject of burns, for example, some people put cream or grease or butter on, and this in fact makes the burn hotter. If it is a minor burn, the best thing to do is put the burnt area under the cold tap, or slowly pour on iced water. This should be done for about ten minutes, and it stops  the heat from spreading. However, if it’s a bad burn, a third-degree burn, don’t touch it; you really should get for this kind of burn expert help immediately. Cover the burn very lightly with something clean like a sheet or a handkerchief and then go straight to a hospital. In road accidents first of all you should check that the victims are breathing. I mean if they’re not, give artificial respiration. The most common injuries in car accidents in fact are fractures and bleeding, so the second thing to do is stop the bleeding. Thirdly very important, don’t move the victim unless it’s absolutely necessary. I mean, if any bones are broken, the injury could be made much worse by moving the victim. You should keep them warm, loosen any tight clothing, and try to reassure them. They’ll probably be suffering from shock, so just stay with them until expert help arrives. In everyday life if you have a headache, heartache, toothache, backache, earache or bad pain in the stomach, if you complain of a sore throat or a bad cough, if you run a high temperature and have a bad cold in your head, or if you suffer from a high or low blood pressure, you should consult a doctor. The doctor will examine your throat, feel your pulse, test your blood pressure, take your temperature, sound your heart and lungs, test your eyes, check your teeth or have your chest X-rayed. After that he will prescribe some treatment, pills, tablets or some other medicine which you can buy at the chemist’s. He will recommend you to stay in bed for some time, because there might be serious complications. The only thing you have to do is to follow his recommendations. Nowdays it becomes more and more popular to use herbal remedy or holistic medicine in treating different disease. The advantage of herbal medicine is that it does not contain any chemical ingredients, thus, it may be applied to almost everyone with few restrictions. As for the holistic medicine in terms of health care it means looking at the whole body, the whole person when it comes to treating people. Modern medicine treats the symptoms and not the course of the illness. Drugs and surgery can remove the symptoms, but not the course. Besides, holistic medicine takes into account not only symptoms, but also the age, habits, motions and life-style of the individual and tries to built an overall picture. Holistic medicine doesn’t prescribe drugs because it tries to prevent illness because prevention is better then cure. A good diet with lots of fresh food, not processed food with its preservatives and chemicals is essential; a health life style without too much pressure and worry about and lots of exercise and rest, not to much, not to little-these are the things that will prevent illness.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Analysis Of Man s Search For Meaning `` By Andrew Solomon

As many individuals know the most common types of depression and what symptoms occurs. However, every kind of depression has a meaning or purpose of why it happen at a certain period of life. The topic I will be discussing is does finding purpose help in recovery for disorders like depression and how will it help during the process. People assumes that when someone feels worthlessness in life assumes it is just depression. There is more than one type of depression and the actual term for it is existential depression which Frankl describes minor details in one of his chapters. Though there are many treatments for depression, how does finding purpose or meaning in life help in recovery for existential depression patients? In Andrew Solomon’s article â€Å"Depression† he was suffering from depression and felt like his life was meaningless and had no purpose to live. He describes his depression as a vine on an oak has grown onto him and always has thoughts on death. In Vikt or Frankl’s book â€Å"Man’s Search for Meaning† he describes that young patients who suffer this neurosis include two identification: from â€Å"being jobless was equated with being useless, and being useless was equated with having a meaningless life. Depression can be referred to many types though there is one type relevant to an individual facing issues of freedom, life, a meaning of life, and death. Existential depression is a type of depression whereas an individual feels as if one’s life is worthlessness andShow MoreRelatedMeasuring Consumers’ Luxury Value Perception: a Cross-Cultural Framework13193 Words   |  53 Pagessegments (Jain 1989). Within a segment and regarding a particular ―culture-independentâ€â€" product category (e.g., fashion, cars, luxuries), consumer behaviors do not vary across cultures or countries (Dawar and Parker 1994). 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