Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Reflection on Geerhardus Vos for Grace and Glory. Answer: Geerhardus Vos looks at theology as a science about God. Vos majors at explaining to people more so the Christians of the revelation of God. He has approached this through theology studies (Vos, 2017). Theology being a science about God, it is said that before we can go to God, He must first come down to us. He explains this in three divisions. First is the Mosaic epoch of revelation, he looked at various points. The life of a person, his probation time, temptation, the death- either mortality or immortality. The curse which was first pronounced to Adam in Eden, which brought about the human suffering. Then came the period of Noah where the earth was destroyed by flood, him together with his family were preserved in that generation. After that, we had other great patriarchs. Abraham was called by God and redemption was also promised to him. He was a man of great faith and through him Isaac a patriarch was even born as his promised son. To Isaac was born Jacob who had grand visions and to note the Bethel dream vision and his wrestling with the angel of God at Peniel. In the period of Moses, God revealed himself to the people by the pillar of cloud during the day and fire by night th roughout their journey from Egypt to Canaan. God delivered them from bondage and fighting for them with many nations (Vos, 2013). They were also given the tabernacle the Ten Commandments and were given the anti-typical tabernacle, the sacrificial system of the law which pointed to the death of Christ. The second division is the prophetic epoch of revelation. Prophets were Gods representatives and told of things that happened, were happening that time and expected to occur in the future. God communicated to the by speech, miracles and even dreams. Lastly is the New Testament which brings the prophecy of Jesus the Messiah from the old testament and the teachings of John the Baptist, teachings on Jesus (Vos, 2015). The baptism and temptation of Christ and His public ministry stressing on the majesty of God and the evils of Satan. Jesus also taught about having faith in him and sincere repentance to attain righteousness. We also have the teachings of Paul and other apostles about the e xpectations of Christians and the Kingdom of Heaven. Vos study explains the story of redemption from the time of Adam to that of Christs second coming. The promise given to our forefathers like Abraham was finally fulfilled in the birth of Christ on earth. It helps me understand how God worked in various capacities to save man from sin. He stresses on the need of we human beings should have communion with God by allowing Him to come down to us (Vos, 2011). I now understand why Jesus came and why the sacrificial offerings are no more after Christ died on the cross and He is the type doing away with the anti-type. The only thing remaining is Christ coming for the second time to take to heaven those who will be redeemed. References Vos, G. (2011).Grace and Glory (). Hyweb Technology Co. Ltd.. Vos, G. (2013). Reformed Dogmatics.Edited and translated by Richard B. Gaffin Jr,5, 2012-16. Vos, G. (2015).Pauline Eschatology. Ravenio Books. Vos, G. (2017). The idea of biblical theology as science and as a theological discipline. Accessed on 16 Oct. 17. https://myrrh.library.moore.edu.au/bitstream/handle/10248/10226/vos_redemptive_history_and_biblical_interpretation_p_3_24.pdf?sequence=1
Saturday, November 30, 2019
My appearance is not remarkable; when you look at me, you see a five-foot-nine, brown-haired, blue-eyed, 16-year-old high school senior. A sweater, long pants, and sneakers constitute my dress code; my ties and expensive shoes remain in the closet. As such, to those who do not know me, I am ordinary. Nonetheless, after becoming acquainted with me, you will see that my cover is no indication of my true self.I am more serious than most of my contemporaries. Frequently, I study in the third-floor basement of the Princeton University Library to avoid the incessant rings of the telephone, leaving only as the sun sets and trekking home for an hour via train and foot. While other secondary school students may tune to the hard rock of Princetons 97.1 WPST, I watch Prime News with Bernard Shaw. If someone tells me that he or she does not understand the days calculus lesson, I voluntarily explain itÃ¢â¬âeven if that means losing all of a valuable 40-minute study hall. When the typical You d on t have to bother response comes, I say, Yes, I do; you dont understand it. Now be quiet and listen. Although for the past ten years I have consistently endured long, strenuous practice sessions with my viola, the thought of ending this career truly frightens me.Motivation plays a key role in my success. I suffer from a disease that affects many people: lack of time. Twenty-four hours in a day simply is not enough. Nevertheless, motivation keeps me going on the days when I wake up at six oclock to go to high school, leave school to walk a mile to the train station, wait for the train, walk to my Spanish class at Princeton University, study, walk another mile to the Medical Center at Princeton, volunteer for three hours, and return home at seven oclock to eat dinner, write an essay, and study for an economics exam. Still, I enjoy going through my daily routine. The thought of sifting through pages of scholarly works to gather information for a class does not discourage me; it intri gues me. A recent research paper for my A.P. American government and comparative politics class using mathematical calculations and equations to demonstrate biases of the Electoral College was not only, as my instructor said, without question, the best paper Ive ever read but also an aid to my concurrent study of derivatives in my A.P. calculus class.Conversations with me on current events will often result in heated debate. No matter what my position, I attempt to argue the other viewÃ¢â¬âa habit that often causes me to alter my opinion. During the most recent presidential campaign, I spent two weeks at lunchtime questioning the best solution for deficit reduction. Of the four people who ate with me, all expressed their position on this issue: Cut government spending before raising taxes. I was also a steadfast proponent of this view. However, after gathering my thoughts for a few moments, I vehemently argued that while government spending should be cut in some sectors, taxes ne eded to be raised at the same time. I argued so forcefully that I and three others at my table now hold that the only way to maintain our current standard of living and cause significant deficit reduction is to combine spending cuts with tax hikes.Although my cover may not be extraordinary, I like to believe that my inside is unique and creative. If a stranger could imagine my habits, personality, and feelings just by looking at my face, of what value would I be? People are not their covers; to judge them as such would merely be foolish.CommentsThe major problem with the essay is that the student goes out of his way to include information about his achievements, as if he were afraid to leave out any detail that might impress his reader. The sentence about his viola lessons, for instance, is tacked on to the second paragraph. That he enjoyed his research for his paper on the Electoral College nicely illustrates his scholarly bent; that specific detail is well chosen. He spoils its ef fect, though, by dragging in the additional information that his teacher thought the paper the best he had ever read.Another reservation is about the students vocabulary. The essay begins engagingly, with an unassuming, understated opening that plays nicely with the idea that people cant judge a book by its cover. Fairly quickly, however, the language becomes stiffer and more formal. By the end of the piece, the student is presenting himself as a steadfast proponent of a view and vehemently arguing for his position. To write that he held a view and argued strongly for it would have been adequate. The essay would be stronger if the words were drawn from the students spokenÃ¢â¬ârather than writtenÃ¢â¬âvocabulary. Its always a good idea to read an essay aloud: If the writer cant imagine himself ever saying the words he has put on the page, he needs to adjust his vocabulary until he sounds like himself.The writer comes off as a pedantic overachiever. The command to a classmate to be quiet and listen makes him seem overbearing and impatientÃ¢â¬âqualities admissions officers do not want in successful applicants.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Informative Essay Sample on the British Airways British Airways (BA) faced diverse problems in 1980. Following World War II BA inherited numerous war veterans who brought their military mentality with them. BA initially formed through the merger of two government agencies. These two factors created an organization that provided the cut and dry service of taking off and landing on time. Nothing else mattered. In the early 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s BA turned profits. This caused neglect to foster amongst BAÃ¢â¬â¢s overseers. During the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, BA focused only on minimizing cost to the state. Like government agencies, BA had become extremely inefficient due to too many employees and too many managers. BAÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity level was about half the average of the other eight foreign airlines. BA management recognized that 58,000 employees were too many; however, unrealistic passenger growth forecasts allowed management to overlook their obesity year after year. Customer service was not of much importance at BA. The rigid culture at BA did not infuse its employees with a need to put the customer first. BA treated customers as though the customer did not have a choice in service and as though the customer had received a benefit in getting to ride the airplane. Numerous bad experiences tarnished BAÃ¢â¬â¢s public image. In 1980 external problems revealed the festering internal problems. In 1980, Britain soaked in its worst recession in 50 years, which reduced passenger numbers and sent fuel costs through the roof. Faced with a recession teamed with an archaic fleet and high staffing costs, BA was running out of funds at a rapid pace and teetered on the verge of bankruptcy. Due to its soiled image, the planned privatization of BA to the investing public would not save the airline. British Airways needed immediate radical change in order to survive. British Airways, one of the most prominent airlines in Europe, had a major crisis in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was on the verge of bankruptcy. Management had to make drastic changes to get rid of their Ã¢â¬Å"bloody awfulÃ¢â¬ image, to get the airline back to profitability. The change process implemented at BA reflected most of the features mentioned in John KotterÃ¢â¬â¢s eight-step model for implementing a successful change. Following is a description of these steps. Establishing a Sense of Urgency: In 1981 BAÃ¢â¬â¢s management realized that it needed a drastic change in its business model and culture to avoid bankruptcy. The challenge was to change the operational culture of people who believed that their job was simply to get an aircraft into the air on time and to get it down on time. As Roy Watts (CEO of BA) stated in his special bulletin to the staff, there was a high possibility of BA going out of business unless they took decisive actions to cut their costs sharply and immediately. The problems at BA became worse when BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s worst recession in fifty years reduced passenger numbers and raised fuel costs. These situations created increased sense of urgency for BA management to bring about a transformation. The first step taken by BA management to address this problem was the hiring of Sir John King as the Chairman who believed that a change was necessary. King had a successful track record of starting businesses and restructuring companies in trouble. King was a respected individual in society with government connections. This fostered his ability to implement a change process. Thus by hiring King, BA successfully implemented the first step in KotterÃ¢â¬â¢s eight-step change model which states that Ã¢â¬Å"Transformation often begin, and begin well, when an organization has a new head who is a good leader and who sees the need for a major change.Ã¢â¬ Forming a Powerful Guiding Coalition: One of the first steps that King took was to surround himself with a group of people with enough power to help him start the change process. King hired Gordon Dunlop as the CFO. As CFO, DunlopÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to the recovery years was significant. The second step was to break the 36-year-old contract with Foote, Cone Belding and to hire a new advertising agency, Saatchi Saatchi. This was an important step to change the airlines image to Ã¢â¬Å"The WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Favorite AirlineÃ¢â¬ . King also recruited Colin Marshall, as CEO of the company, who proved to be the single most important person in the implementation of the change process. Marshall brought with him two tremendous advantages. First, he understood customer service, and second, he had worked with a set of customers similar to the airline segment. Thus based on eight-step model, King built a successful turn around team of individuals who were powerful in terms of title, informa tion and expertise, relationship and reputations. Creating a Vision: According to Kotter, a vision helps clarify the direction in which the organization needs to move. BA started the change process with a vision to be the Ã¢â¬Å"WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Favorite AirlineÃ¢â¬ . BA started developing strategies to achieve this vision. The first step King launched was to implement a Survival plan to cut cost and save airline from bankruptcy. BA accomplished its reductions through voluntary measures by offering generous severance pay. This offer was very well received and BA ended up with plenty of volunteers. The layoffs didnÃ¢â¬â¢t leave a bad feeling amongst employees. King then hired a new ad agency to change the image of airlines. BA launched the Ã¢â¬Å"Manhattan LandingÃ¢â¬ campaign sowing the seeds for achieving its vision of becoming the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite airline. Finally, he recruited a new CEO whose specialty and focus was on customer service. This was one of the important strategies in accomplishing the vision. Communicating the Vision: Kotter states that in order to achieve a vision the company needs commitment and belief from its employees. Credible communication to the employees increases their belief in the change process. BA management started communicating its vision by sending out personal invitations to gather employees so that they could tune in to the inaugural of its Ã¢â¬Å"Manhattan LandingÃ¢â¬ advertisement campaign. Some BA offices also held cocktail parties to celebrate the new campaign. BA management also introduced the PPF (Putting People First), which emphasizes customer service. This program had an extraordinary impact on its employees because of the strong support from management and the honesty of its message. Every program ended with a question and answer session conducted by a Senior Executive to address any employee concerns. This program increased the confidence of the employees in the change process. BA constantly reinforced its changing image to its employees a nd public by putting together celebrations such as the unveiling of its new fleet at Heathrow airport. Empowering Others to Act on the Vision: Once the vision is communicated it is important to encourage employees to act on the vision. In order to change its image, BA management got rid of its 36-year-old relationship with the ad agency. BA management also started empowering its managers by launching a program called Managing People First (MPF). This program stressed the importance of trust, leadership, feedback and vision. BA management also encouraged employees to go beyond their normal job responsibilities. As stated by a veteran engineer, Ã¢â¬Å"Now I can go and do a lot, whatever I need to do, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t call someone else to do the job. Now you just get on with itÃ¢â¬ . Another important step taken by BA was to separate itself from the design of the PPF and MBF training programs. Planning for and Creating Short Term Wins: To implement a vision takes time, it was necessary for BAÃ¢â¬â¢s management to renew employee motivation and efforts in the short-run. BA sent personal invitations, flew in thousands of global employees, and made strong efforts to treat all employees with respect. BAÃ¢â¬â¢s management celebrated its changes in more visible ways. They put together a big celebration when they unveiled a new fleet at Heathrow Airport. The celebrations went on for eight weeks and four times per day to ensure that all employees were included. These celebrations helped BA to keep the momentum going during the change process. Consolidating Improvements and Producing Still more Change: The BA management continued to maintain its momentum by introducing additional programs such as Ã¢â¬Å"A Day in LifeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"To Be the BestÃ¢â¬ . They implemented the Ã¢â¬Å"BrainwavesÃ¢â¬ program to encourage employee input and also introduced the Ã¢â¬Å"Awards for Excellence ProgramÃ¢â¬ to recognize outstanding contributions by employees. The success of change process was exhibited when the government passed legislation to make BA a public company. BA shares were 11 times oversubscribed which showed the confidence of the public in the new image of British Airways. After privatization, BA management made globalization a major priority. This was evident as they bought major stakes in other airlines and forged alliances with various airlines to increase their network. They also bought substantial stake in Galileo, an advanced computer reservation system servicing other major carriers. Institutionalizing New Approaches: Institutionalizing change involves showing how new approaches, behaviors, and attitudes help improve performance. Different scenarios within BA exemplified this point such as celebrating successes with celebrations and including employees of all levels within these celebrations. These celebrations promoted the value of the change process and increased its visibility to everyone in the organization. When BA faced a battle with British Caledonian over route transfers, King and his team were able to rally signatures of over 26,000 employees for submitting a petition. This overwhelming support to the management signified employee commitment and belief in the change process. BA management nurtured new behavior and shared values by introducing various programs like Putting People First (PPF) and Managing People First (MPF). These programs helped in promoting management vision to the entire organization. Thus BAÃ¢â¬â¢s management was able to make the cha nge process endure by gradually anchoring it in a supportive culture over a period of time. You can order a custom essay, term paper, research paper, thesis or dissertation on British Airways at our professional custom essay writing service which provides students with high-quality custom papers written by qualified Ph.D. and Masters academic writers. Any topics. Any deadline. 100% plagiarism free guarantee! Get online essay help at an affordable cost!
Friday, November 22, 2019
Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent Biography Fluently bilingual, with an Irish mother and a QuÃ ©bÃ ©cois father, Louis St. Laurent was an apolitical lawyer when he went to Ottawa in 1941 to be Minister of Justice and Mackenzie Kings Quebec lieutenant temporarily until the end of the war. St. Laurent did not retire from politics until 1958. The post-war years were prosperous in Canada, and Louis St. Laurent expanded social programs and began many mega-projects. While the influence of Britain on Canada was gradually decreasing, the influence of the United States on Canada grew. Prime Minister of Canada 1948-57 Highlights as Prime Minister Newfoundland joined Canada 1949 (see Joey Smallwood)Trans-Canada Highway Act 1949Canada was a founding member of NATO 1949Canada contributed troops to the UN force in Korea from 1950 to 1953. More than 26,000 Canadians served in the Korean War and 516 died.Canada played a role in resolving Suez Crisis 1956St. Lawrence Seaway started construction 1954Introduced equalization payments to distribute federal taxes to provincial governments 1956Introduced universal old age pensionsProvided funds for hospital insuranceCreated Canada Council 1956 Birth and Death Born on February 1, 1882, in Compton, OntarioDied on July 25, 1973, in Quebec City, Quebec Education BA - St. Charles Seminary, Sherbrooke, QuebecLL.L - Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec Professional Background Corporate and constitutional lawyerLaw professorPresident of the Canadian Bar Association 1930-32Counsel, Rowell-Sirois Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations Political Affiliation Liberal Party of Canada Riding (Electoral District) Quebec East Political Career of Louis St. Laurent In 1941, at the age of 59 and at the request of Mackenzie King, Louis St. Laurent agreed to be Minister of Justice until World War II was over. Louis St. Laurent was first elected to the House of Commons in a by-election in 1942. He was Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada from 1941 to 1946 and again in 1948, and Secretary of State for External Affairs from 1946 to 1948. He was elected Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada in 1948. In 1948, Louis St. Laurent was sworn in as Prime Minister of Canada. The Liberals won the general elections of 1949 and 1953. The Liberals lost the general election in 1957 and Louis St. Laurent became Leader of the Opposition. John Diefenbaker became Prime Minister. Louis St. Laurent resigned as Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada in 1958.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
English A1 HL IB - Essay Example This contrast is a direct placement of Iago as the villain of the story since biblical tradition accepts the representation of Satan as something he is not. The audience of the time would have clearly understood the idea that by presenting himself as something different Iago has plans in place to act as the villain of the story and will bring harm to other characters. Another contrast which is made evident in the first scene is the contrast between Iago and Cassio. Iago compares himself with the present lieutenant and shows that he is more battle ready while Cassio is nothing more than a womanizing mathematician who can not be expected to hold his own in any battle. Additionally, Iago says that he has proven himself to the chiefs of the city several times over while Cassio has done nothing which is worthy of praise. A particularly strange comparison is made by Iago concerning the features of Desdemona and Othello when he calls them a white ewe and an old black ram respectively. This comparison works on several levels since Iago is accusing both the lovers of bestiality, he is comparing OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s old age with DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s young age and finally, he is comparing their colors to show the difference races these individuals belong to. All three are negative comparisons and serve to only heighten the indignation Brabantio feels at the disappearance of his daughter. In scene 2, there is an interesting comparison between Othello and Iago. When Brabantio and his men are approaching Iago and Othello, Iago asks Othello to go into the shadow yet he refuses. This shows the character of Othello that he believes he has done nothing wrong in marrying the person he loves. On the other hand, the character of Iago prefers to remain in the shadows and casts doubts as well as creates schemes while being in the shadows. When Brabantio confronts Othello, he makes several comparisons between Othello and Desdemona
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
What Is New Age - Research Paper Example The practices of the New Age are individual journeys that can sometimes constitute an organized church or movement. New Age and/or New Religious Movements (NRMÃ¢â¬â¢s), also popularly known as cults, can have a great impact on the family. Oftentimes these cults rely on community organization, seeking recruits, and creating a new reality for participants that can be detrimental to the structure of the family. A new religious movement is basically defined as a movement which is spiritual or faith-based in nature. New religious movements may also have a basis in ethics, theology, philosophy, or religion to some extent. Cults need not be destructive in nature, however. Many people who study social psychology have adopted the term Ã¢â¬Å"new religious movementÃ¢â¬ as a way of describing cults or New Age-y organizations in neutral language. New religious movements may be communitarian, or they may be specifically spiritual or religious in nature. Usually what separates new religious movements from other religious movements in society is their unique ability to isolate people from other social networks. New religious movements had connotations of brainwashing. Several people are still wont to call new religious movements Ã¢â¬Å"cultsÃ¢â¬ because that term is still more popular than the term Ã¢â¬Å"new religious movement.Ã¢â¬ There is still no formal criteria for what a new religious movement constitutes. However, in general, the group which is a new religious movement is somewhat new (obviously), and it is set apart or distinct from other religions. There is much controversy over what constitutes a Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ religious movement. Some people use certain dates as benchmarks for saying religion is newÃ¢â¬âfor example, a religious movement that has occurred within the last 20 years or so.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Conclusion Families Essay Families are viewed differently by various people in the world. Some individuals have cherished this institution. And others have not. Origins of the family article try as much to discuss what a family is and its origins. The traffic in women is an article that describes who is a woman and for many centuries what treatment women have gone through socially and mentally. This paper will give a detailed account of each of the article and lastly it will compare and contrast the contents of the two articles. Origins of the family Different views are expressed about a family around the world whereby it has been discovered that people share common backgrounds even though extremely far apart. The most primitive people in the world including the original American Indians have their way to describe what a family is. The American Indians were the first group that was studied so that an overview or a general idea about a family was created even though the studies have been extended to many other regions around the world, there where many other observations that were carried out or taken into consideration. One of the main issues that passively describe a family is the system of name calling or relations in the extended family. For instance, cousins never called each other cousins but brothers and sisters. Young people who grow in that setting have no questions to ask but the join the system and that kind of trend has been very natural with and for them. This kind of phenomenon was first noticed in the New York state among the few remaining Indian American tribe Iroquois by name and the Seneca tribesmen and women adopted it. Wonders did not cease there, some indigenous tribes in India where also practicing the same. This kind of naming and relating is known as consanguinity. Families are not only found to exist in man but animals and birds as well. This is the reason why animals are found in herds or groups. Animals exhibit a unique behavior that exhibited by man or birds. For instance during the mating period of these animals is the most tempting moments that may destroy or temporarily relinquish the family relations. The males fight to retain supremacy over one another and during this period it is rare to notice animals walking or doing things in a group as usual. This behavior has been related to the living animals that are close to human i. e. primates which now have human like characteristics. Apes also fight while mating whereby males seriously engage in fights to gain and maintain supremacy over the others; this is the time group work or family relating ties temporarily wane. What does this tell us about human family? The human family is different from any kind of animals or birds or primates because members of a family do anything out of reasoning and nothing else. But it is the great quest for knowledge that leads to many discoveries. For example birds practice monogamy form of families and while observing them these birds fly in pairs. People also practice monogamy but some practice polyandry and polygamy. Polyandry is a practice where a woman is married to many husbands and it is not done secretly but it is well known and polygamy is when a man is having many women, it is not a secret. This switches the topic to sexuality and family. Sex life is a must do thing to sustain and ensure continuity of any family lineages. All peoples in the world this fact and even the most primitive people know that for the continuity of the family system sex has to be practiced. Nevertheless, it is interesting that many of these people in the world where research has been conducted, they in a way respected the institution of marriage and more so sex whereby they never treated women as commodities of sex even though polygamy was practiced. They had special times of the month or year when they practiced sex and theirs was not for pleasure but procreation. People like the Savages were believed to be very harsh and took women as tools for and of sexual intercourse to give birth to as many children as possible but this was not the case. Marriage was a respected institution where a man and a woman possessed one another. There was no jealousy and instances of men sharing women and women sharing men unless otherwise in some primitive communities where some sexual related activities occurred. Like in some communities it was a taboo to engage in sex with someone outside with members who were perceived to enemies and it could be rather better with a close family member that that perceived enemy. However in some communities it was not a taboo for brothers and sisters to have sexual intercourse. In some communities or family groups of the ancient Greece, sexual intercourse was not prohibited among brothers and sisters because this was one an assured way of multiplying quickly and another reason was not to endanger the security of fellow countrymen by marrying from outside but with time this practice came to a halt. One interesting trend of families that have been found in t world is where men marry many wives and naturally if a visitor comes by and he takes a night in that homestead, the visitor will be offered one of the wives to entertain for the long he will stay around no matter the visitor is known or not known to the family and this means even any strangers enjoyed that right. In a research that was conducted in Australia, there is a sub-tribe that practices a peculiar tradition that all women in another sub tribe known to them are naturally wives to men in their tribe and it does not matter whether you have married one woman from that sub tribe but all the others by default they are wives. Sex among sub tribe members is strictly forbidden. The trend of a man being entertained sexually far away while sojourning is or was a practice by the aborigines in Australia. In the world today the family trends are still intriguing for example some indigenous tribes are taking deliberate measures to sustain or maintain their people who are being swallowed up by wider communities especially the settlers until they resort to conducting marriages among themselves that are among sisters and brothers. It is not their fault because since time immemorial the practices took place even in ancient Biblical times. Through a man God trusted in the town called Sodom and Gomorrah that was Lot, slept with her daughters after their mum had perished in the inferno and their was no righteous man who could have married them by then. Regardless it was their father they managed to bore children and the family of the generation continuity was established. Who know these things may be going on without the knowledge of other people or the family members themselves. More other family customs are like the ones that are yet conducted by people all over the world, for instance, the American Indians of California have had festivals where tribes come together purposely for a promiscuous sexual intercourse. This kind of tradition is also in and practiced in Australia. In Australia some older men and magicians exploit wives in their community and monopolize many of the women for themselves. These kinds of practices have been witnessed in Hos, Santals, etc of India and others in many parts of Africa. In many other places like the continent of South America, some communities in India, young girls enjoy sex until the get married. Families have gone through many different stages as the issue of polygamy is a hot debate whether it should be allowed or not. Some have preferred a simple family that is monogamy. Many practices of sex are not the things that should be taken for granted as diseases are popping up that are incurable and therefore families must be protected through all means. For instance many have accepted monogamy because this is the only form of or type family that better ideals are practiced. For instance there is an assurance of save sex and true expression of love among family members more especially husband and wife. Traffic in Women Traffic in women starts with the origins of women oppression and social discrimination and the discussion of this will light to the trend of fighting for the rights of women. Further excavation of the truth may measure whether the fight for equality will bear fruit from men and among women because for a long time women have been perceived as their own enemies. After doing a round of history on women and the cause of their discrimination and yet the have comparatively done excellent work in family circles from raising children and working tirelessly to sustain their families. One main issue is the analysis of the cause of this oppression or discrimination against women, and then it will be easier to change and achieve a society of equality. There have been situations where men were degraded like the slavery debacle, this affected women even ten times more than men. They suffered double tragedy as sex slaves and plantation slaves. They suffered physically, socially and emotionally. Marxist theory argues that women are not suffering as they work, they are as a reserve force for labor and their low wages is a way capitalists get surplus. But the Marxist theory only handles matters pertaining to labor which truly is not oppression. Marxist theory is the best way to describe the usefulness of women in societies around the world, so an analysis of suffering women using Marxist theory is very wrong. Maybe his (Marx) statement was or is misinterpreted to portray a tendency that women are suffering when they earning whichever meager resources to sustain their families. Unfortunately there are societies who use this excuse to oppress women. Examples have been given that some societies portray women as sex objects and nothing else. The Amazon region and New Guinea highlands are the examples in the world where women are simply known as sex objects and they are gang raped by marauding men. On the other hand, the origin of the tendency that women are home keepers is not known but is assumed that when Marxist theory came into use men were really wanted to work, the hard labor that required the enduring energy at home hence many a times women were left at home to take care of the families. The interpretation came to be precisely referred to as historical and moral element that it is a necessity for any worker to be married or have wife. The tendency of women kept at home for child rearing and general home keeping gave birth to a belief that women can not inherit property, serve God and lead. Capitalism bred this clear cut difference of masculinity and femininity. Some quarters up to date believe that sex oppression is part of capitalism as a social form. Due to social activities and the changes that come with it, human sex and gender have also as well changed over time. Women are expected to reproduce but it wise to differentiate between economic systems and sexual systems to avoid a scenario where women are assumed to be for only reproduction and nothing else. Great changes have been noticed in many societies where women have been opportunities to lead in various activities that have been traditionally meant for men. Therefore, it is consequently wrong to use capitalism to assume that women are meant to sexually reproduce and not economically reproduce. All in all kinship plays an extremely important role in any society and therefore kinship will place us and social researchers in a point where every will understand social obligations that are directly associated with men, women and then both of them. Kinship as many anthropologists may say and believe is system of categories and statuses which contradict the actual genetic relationships. A good precedent is where women or a woman is married to another woman and the marrying takes the responsibilities of a husband by paying dowry and bringing up the children. This practice is rife in many societies almost in very continent. Thus, it is not wrong to quip that kinship defines all social activities in a given society, be it economical, sexual or social activities. Kinship enjoys the status and statutes of the principle of anthropology but there are many underlying things that should be looked into and some of which are controversial like close family intermarriages, for example a cousin marrying a cousin. But it should be born in mind that kinship systems differ from one another in culture which includes taboos and marriage. In all endeavors of kinship, marriage is one of the issues that seem to be treated with respect even though there are those primitive societies and not all of the that still use the excuse of kinship to undermine family values. These societies that treat marriage as special they call it a gift and this a very positive sign in a way that nobody will be foolish enough to destroy the gift that has been bestowed upon him. Now, this is the most important part of kinship or the positive role that kinship plays in a society. Through the exchange of the gift family ties get stronger, solidarity and trust is established, in this case the women given away in marriage is more a gift than a man. Interestingly some people have claimed that this is a commercial venture because dowry exchanges hands. The result of a gift in form of a woman is more profound and appreciated than other gift transactions because the relationship that is established is not just one of reciprocity but one of kinship. And this is a strong message of a society to other people who mistaken women to be sex slaves and child bearing machines. The exchange of partners also establishes their descendants related by blood. Two people may exchange gifts and quarrel or fight but in for intermarriage connects them in a permanent way. In some communities or societies gifts giving through marriage are not as simple as it may sound. For some people the exchange of gifts in form of women sound commercial and they term it as a transaction of giving and taking making a woman who is given away as a conduit of relationships but which is true. In such occasions, oppression of women is not expected and the rate of exploitation is minimal. The term traffic in women can be clearly defined at this point. Very apart from the normal and culturally accepted gift in form of a woman, some societies give women away for just the exchange of favors during famine, war and even some are sent away as a tribute. Then complexities start arising at this point because women are treated like commodities just given at will and at a price. In history this has happened and it differs from one cultural group or culture to another. At this very point some anthropologists argue that the issue of women trafficking came with the advent of culture meaning that culture explosion let to the exchanging and or trafficking of women. To a wider extent this was and is not true. The exchange of women in some societies it is intended for the well being of the community and for proper procreation. However some communities or greedy individuals capitalize in the venture to traffic women for economical or material gain. These women end up being mistreated and are used as sex tools to enrich the buyers or traffickers. There must be a clear cut distinction between those ones given as gifts in marriage and those other ones given away or trafficked to enrich unscrupulous individuals. That is why somewhere in this paper it is noted that some people envy the occasion when women are given as gifts and they feel it should be a commercial venture instead. But the genuine exchange of women in marriage is regarded as a fundamental principle of kinship. This ends up in an organized relationship of gender and sex. However, it does not oppress the women or degrade them. The analysis of a social system that touches sensitive issues like sex and gender generates very hot debates and this is the time when differing opinion are heard and some are very sentimental in nature. This is the time when kinship and its principles are put into temptations and negative scrutiny. Comparisons of the two topics The main objective of this paper as it was clearly stated in the introduction part of it was to compare and contrast the two issues or items i. e. the origins of the family and the traffic in women. It is of the essence to first have elaborated points in each item so that a few things are mentioned or the comparisons are done in form of a summary under this topic. First and foremost, the items have elaborated about family while the item Ã¢â¬Ëorigins of familyÃ¢â¬Ë concentrates on the family relationships and the close knit ties and cousins do not regard and call each other cousins but brothers. This piece of item has also highlighted the important role women play is society and the many dangers and challenges the face in their daily operations and life. The other item Ã¢â¬Ëtraffic in womenÃ¢â¬â¢ elaborates more on the treatment of family members especially women. It has highlighted the same occurrences in women of many societies around the world. This item on its part has elaborated on the trafficking of women for commercial reasons hence a disgrace to the society but in the way round, there is a good show on the value of women as they are exchanged as gifts in marriage which portray the importance of women in the society. But the item continues to analyze the repercussions of the exchanging a woman as a gift and the repercussion is some people in society have extended this to trafficking women for their personal gain. In both pieces of items the comparisons and contrasts do not adventure outside the family circles even though they both talk about communities or societies around the world. They have featured and analyzed about the indigenous societies or communities among them the native red Indians in the United States, the aborigines in Australia, some primitive tribes in New Guinea and many others. Women are given more attention by both items because of the mistreatment they faced and they are facing so that this studies that were and are conducted will offer solutions to the many demeaning or dignifying problems women face. Last but not least, sex is discussed by both stories but the first story which deals with the origins of a family deeply discusses sex which is viewed as evil and the way women have been misused, while the story or item two that deals with traffic in women depicts how women have been sold for sex purposes and it is becoming a culture. The main theme of the two pieces of stories is family values which encompasses many other sub themes that are clearly depicted here. Some of the sub themes are sex, family ties, kinship or family relationships and women responsibilities. Conclusion Families have been raised and nurtured for as many years as the age of the universe and societies have done their part in raising and teaching families their values but of all that women have played a very extremely important role. Women are the cornerstones of families and through these two items this has been strongly confirmed. Therefore the statement that they are cornerstones of families must not be controversial. However, it is sad that those women have been abused and degraded by in and by all means in our society. Society means the world in this case.