Friday, May 22, 2020
The purpose of this paper is to examine the healthcare workforce diversity in American hospitals and then establish the patterns and problems within this area. From a human resources perspective, it will then examine different ways of managing this diversity to try and establish a positive workforce diversity program which aims to provide good, consistent service to the population. The different layers of the healthcare workforce will be examined to try and provide a full picture of the workforce in the United States. Also, the examination will illustrate that how this is affecting the healthcare system within this country, and try to come to some resolution with regards to improving, managing and maintaining the system. To examine the management of healthcare diversity in American hospitals, it is worth looking at current issues within the workforce diversity of American hospitals within current academic researches. It has been noted that providing diversity in healthcare is vitall y important for 'culturally competent healthcare' and it is instrumental in providing a good and worthwhile service to the population. The real question is, however, how much diversity is there currently in healthcare in the United States? We will write a custom essay sample on Comparative Healthcare Workforce Diversity or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now It has been shown that there are serious sociocultural boundaries between different groups when it comes to careers in healthcare, with only 2% of healthcare workers identifying as Hispanic or Latino, despite the fact that 12.5% of the general population identifies as this race. This is not the only example of a mismatch in diversity within the workforce. Gamble has shown that African Americans are also severely underrepresented in healthcare within the United States. With such an emphasis being placed on providing good healthcare that is both culturally relevant and culturally sensitive, it is obvious that these disparities are a significant problem in American healthcare. Interestingly, it has also been found that areas with high diversity with respect to African Americans and Latino residents are just as likely as predominantly white areas to have a shortage of physicians.
Monday, May 18, 2020
Culminating Book Review Anderson CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s: Dispatches from the Edge He is well known for working for CNN and is one of the most influential news reporters and show anchors. Anderson Cooper. He has written a rather tragic and informational book about his traveling and reporting experiences in a part of his life, his book is called Dispatches From The Edge, where he talks about four most important events that have occurred and made him into the person he is now. In each event, heÃ¢â¬â¢s with his crew, tying to get a good story and document about later. His cameraman and translator are with him, working around the clock, He begins to talk to us more about his early life, and continues to talk about his experiences in Sri Lanka, Iraq, NigerÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦And when he nearly has started a great career, his own brother committed suicide right before his eyes. For a reason he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even know. But this was where and when it all started. This was the great impact on Coopers life. Cooper covered hundreds of stories, in the beginning he is in Sri Lanka, the morning after Christmas. He explains why the tsunami has occurred. He cannot nearly describe the feeling and what he sees. He feels like this was a part of him that was almost Ã¢â¬Å"cravingÃ¢â¬ to see. After his brother died, he thought seeing death was normal for him. He put himself into those dangerous situations just to see more. I find it, that, the main conflict of this part was the fact that he was searching for a conflict. Once he finally gets his hands on Ã¢â¬ breaking newsÃ¢â¬ , he finds himself looking for that storyÃ¢â¬â¢s, lets say, characters. Staring at a wall of pictures, trying to identify the members. It was after similar events where he did not seem to care about what normal was. But Cooper, however, did not know what that was. Instead the second he found out about the war in Iraq, he was on a plane, not knowing at all where he would go from there. This I felt was the most crucial part in defining the direction his life went to. H is need to see blood and bodies was becoming into a conflict itself. He described himself as beastly. He forgot what being normal was. This was rather disturbing, and very negative direction to where his life was heading. This book is almost toShow MoreRelatedSell Sheet Biographical sketch Darrell Case is the author of Live Life to the Fullest, Out of700 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesforges ahead; unaware he is endangering his life and the lives of others. Invagating he uncovers a plot by deacons Sean OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley and Frederick Cooper. For years these two have bilked the church out of hundreds of thousands of dollars. At CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s home he confronts them. Sean pulls a gun threading to kill Adam. A fight ensues Adam is wounded and Frederick Cooper is killed. Sean tries to pins CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s death Adam. Adam is taken to the hospital and kept under heavy guard.. However CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s confessionRead MoreEssay on Hurricane Katrina: Two Disasters2020 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesState governmental agencies did what they could with what means they had in this disaster of Hurricane Katrina, but the Federal government really dropped the ball in the way this disaster was handled, and needed to step in sooner than they did. In the book, Ã¢â¬Å"What Happened: Inside the Bush White House and WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Culture of Deception,Ã¢â¬ Hurricane Katrina and the way it was handled is explored but does not truly blame President Bush for making poor decisions or make him personally responsible for theRead MorePhar-Mor Case1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMichael Monus, chief financial officer Patrick Finn, vice president of finance Jeffrey Walley, controller Stanley Charelstein, and accounting manager John Anderson were all convicted of financial statement fraud. As a result of this fraud charges were also filed against Phar-MorÃ¢â¬â¢s independence audit company, Coopers amp; Lybrand LLP (Coopers). It is in direct response to accounting scandals such as this that The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) was drafted. SOX was created in large to increaseRead MoreDevotion1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. During the 1990 s a new group of cognitive psychologists, lead by Lorin Anderson (a former student of Bloom), updated the taxonomy to reflect relevance to 21st century work. Bloom s Taxonomy was primarily created for academic education, however it is relevant to all types of learning. Interestingly, at the outset, Bloom believedRead MoreStrategic Management Accounting13457 Words Ã |Ã 54 Pagesyears? Kim LangÃ¯ ¬ eld-Smith Monash University, Melbourne, Australia Abstract Purpose Ã¢â¬â The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the origins of strategic management accounting and to assess the extent of adoption and Ã¢â¬Å"successÃ¢â¬ of strategic management accounting (SMA). Design/methodology/approach Ã¢â¬â Empirical papers which have directly researched SMA and prior review papers of the adoption and implementation of SMA or SMA techniques are reviewed. As well as assessing the extent of adoption ofRead MoreThe Effect of Marketing Efficiency, Brand Equity and Customer Satisfaction on Firm Performance an Econometric Model and Data Envelopment Aproach7341 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pagesprofitability. Theoretical aspects have been considered in the research of 2 customer satisfaction construct (e.g. Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Anderson et al. 1994, Fornell et al. 1996) as well as in the research of brand equity (e.g. Aaker 1991; Keller 1993, 1999). Some empirical aspects of the link of marketing positions on firm performance have been developed (e.g. Anderson et al. 2004, Gruca and Rego 2005, Madden et al. 2006). However studies which focus on researching the impact of customerRead More The Hudson RIver School Of Artist Essay1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnewspapers. The mass production of prints and as illustrations in American novels such as the Leather stocking Tales of James Fennimore Cooper, which concerned themselves, at least in part with the place of nature in the American experience. In 1841, writing a review of James Fenimore Coopers Leatherstocking Tales, Honore de Balzac wrote quot;The magical prose of Cooper not only embodies the spirit of the river, its shores, the forests and its trees; but it exhibits the minutes details, combined withRead MoreThe Accounting Fraud At Worldcom Essay1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstatements. Without full disclosure of these items no one could see how many risks the company was taking by making fraudulent entries against their books. Also the external audit team, Arthur Anderson, held WorldCom as one of its best customers which was a major conflict of interest. This relationship lead to many fundamental mistakes from Anderson not keeping pressure on WorldCom and getting all vital information that would prove how poorly the company was being run. Had they been operating transparentlyRead MoreThe Activity-Based Costing Method- Development and Applications5338 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesmethod and its main managerial development, A ctivity-Based Management (ABM), are quite famous.1 But the numerous developments based on the ABC method are neither very well-known nor discussed. The ABC method was designed in the US during the 1980s (Cooper and Kaplan, 1988).2 It is a refined cost system which enables classifying more costs as direct, to expend the number of indirect cost pools and to identify cost drivers. ABC favors better cost allocation using smaller cost pools called activitiesRead MoreAccounting Fraud at Worldcom 33346 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesAccounting Fraud at WorldCom 1) What are the pressures that lead executives and managers to Ã¢â¬Å"cook the books?Ã¢â¬ After the rapid evolution of the telecommunication industry in the 1990s, WorldCom shifted its strategy to focus on building revenues and acquiring capacity sufficient to handle expected growth. Their biggest goal was to be the No. 1 stock on Wall Street rather than capturing the market share. As a result, their Expense-to-Revenue (E/R) Ratio was their measurement for their main objective
Sunday, May 10, 2020
Even in the 21st century, there is still a lingering idea that women strictly belong in the home. This can be attributed to both the continuous, though evolved, embrace of the Cult of Domesticity and natural law. In the eighteenth century the Cult of Domesticity was embraced and challenged by many women, as it is today. Ã¢â¬Å"The Revolt of MotherÃ¢â¬ by Mary E. Wilkins Freeman is a literary example that reinforces the idea of the Cult of Domesticity by showing the reader the boundaries between genders and the power, however limited, that a woman has. In contrast, Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of An HourÃ¢â¬ , shows the constraints that gender roles put on a woman. ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s story challenges the Cult of Domesticity by using the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s internal dialogue to show that this was not the life she pictured. The Cult of Domesticity can be tied to other themes, such as the burden of motherhood, as in Ã¢â¬Å"I Stand Here IroningÃ¢â¬ by Tillie Olsen. The home a nd the children were all under control of the woman of the house, and though it sometimes feels like a burden, it is the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation. Olsen did not fully accept nor fully condemn the Cult of Domesticity; she simply presented it as the way of life. By using the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s internal monologues and their actions to control, or not control, their domains, each of these authors presents their view on the Cult of Domesticity. WilkinÃ¢â¬â¢s story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Revolt of MotherÃ¢â¬ is often misinterpreted by modern readers. Mother is not challenging her role asShow MoreRelatedRevolt of Mother, by Mary E. Wilkins Essay1126 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe story Ã¢â¬Å"Revolt of Mother,Ã¢â¬ by Mary E. Wilkins depicts a woman (Sarah Penn) who is constantly exempt by her husband (Adonriam Penn) in taking part in important decisions until her frustration reached a breaking point, which ultimately leads to drastic changes in their family. In contrast a similar conflict ar ises in the movie Sleeping With the Enemy (1991), which was directed by Joseph Ruben. In the movie the main character, Laura Burney, had everything her heart desired. On the surface she hadRead MoreThe Revolt Of Mother By Mary E. Wilkins Freeman1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesviewed it as right. One writer in particular, Mary E. Wilkins Freeman, published a short story the displayed the injustice in the treatment. Ã¢â¬Å"The Revolt of MotherÃ¢â¬ clearly displays the repression of women in a society much like the one we live in today, and the story leaves the reader with an essential lesson of standing up for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. This piece of work is heavily influenced by the oppression Freedom faced during her life time. In FreemanÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"MotherÃ¢â¬ is meant to represent every woman, whileRead MoreThe Revolt Of Mother By Mary E. Wilkins Freeman And Trifles By Susan Glaspell1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKeana Jones April 6, 2017 Ã¢â¬Å"The Revolt of Ã¢â¬ËMotherÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ by Mary E. Wilkins Freeman and Trifles by Susan Glaspell: WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s The Power Of Feminism ? In the late nineteenth century, America was considered as a patriarchal society. Where males had all control and women worked as their slave. Women were to support all decisions, cook, clean, conceive children, teach, and remain silent. Women has continuously remained a lower standard than men. Still today, womankind is assumed of as unintelligent, inadequateRead More American Literature: Kate Chopin, and Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman1506 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto develop during the antebellum era in the late 19th century and the 20th century. At this period of time many writers started to get well known in the American society. Good examples of two good antebellum era writers are Kate Chopin, and Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman. These two women made a big impact in the American history. Both of these women were very important writers, and well known for their American romance fiction short stories. ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s and FreemanÃ¢â¬â¢s short stories were very interestingRead MoreThe Revo lt Of Mother By Mary Wilkins996 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOppression will not last forever. Sooner or later, the oppressed subject will stand up against the oppressor someday and finally attains freedom, dignity, and respect. Mary Wilkins wrote her short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Revolt of Ã¢â¬ËMotherÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ which mainly focused on a woman to stand up against her authoritarian husband. She wrote it during the time when women had no voice and counted as a second class citizen if not a slave. The writer realized that speaking out was the only chain breaker, especially for the oneRead MoreSummary Of The Revolt Of Mother 1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Revolt of Women? In FreemanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Revolt of MotherÃ¢â¬ , Sarah is a woman trying to break through her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s wall of indifference. Indifference to her opinion, to what she cares about, and what she believes is right. This indifference to women and their beliefs is not out of the ordinary though for this time period. Men of the time supposedly knew best and did whatever they thought was best. Women, like Sarah, have little to no right to do or say as they please. Sarah, being the strong and semi-independentRead More The Battle of the Sexes Continue in The Revolt Of Mother Essay1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Battle of the Sexes Continue in The Revolt Of Mother Ã Ã Ã Unsolicited opportunities are the guide-posts of the Lord to the new roads of life. This quote from Mary E. Wilkins Freemans The Revolt Of Mother exemplifies the independent and rebellious spirit of the main character, Sarah Penn. Because Sarah Penns behavior is unorthodox for a woman of the nineteenth century, the author constantly compared her to similar historical figures. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When Mrs. Penn is baking her husbandsRead MoreMary Freemans The Revolt of Mother and the Domestic Feminist1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswomen felt there was a great dignity in the lifestyle of the housewife, and that raising children was not a job to scoff at. Mary Freemans short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Revolt of Mother,Ã¢â¬ tells the story of such a domestic woman, Sarah, who has no interest in leaving her position as mother, but still wishes to have her voice heard in the private sphere of her home. Freemans Ã¢â¬Å"Revolt of Mother,Ã¢â¬ illustrates an alternative means of resistance for women who rejected the oppression of patriarchy without a withdrawalRead MoreSentimental Plot Essay992 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfor her to successfully publish she would have to follow the sentimental romance plot and kill Calixta in the end to prove that the decisions she made were wrong and had consequences. Mary E. Wilkins in Ã¢â¬Å"The Revolt of MotherÃ¢â¬ is another example tha t goes against the grain of the sentimental plot it deals with a mother that confronts her husband and goes against his say so which in the 19th century was something that was frowned upon. Ã¢â¬Å"Now father, said she you neednÃ¢â¬â¢t be scared. I ainÃ¢â¬â¢t crazy. ThereRead MoreEssay on The Revolt Of Mother938 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In Ã¢â¬Å"The Revolt of Mother,Ã¢â¬ written by Mary E. Wilkins Freeman, along with the narrator, we can experience how human beings communicate. Time and setting are the most important definitions of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. A person cannot change the time he lives in. He lives in the present, the past, or the future. However, his place in location, he is able to choose himself. If a person lives in a city, on a farm, in the mountains, or by the oceanÃ¢â¬âthis can define the nature of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
English language has been rated as one of the most important international languages nowadays. It has been found at primary levels around the world. Teaching English as a foreign language is not an easy task and need a lot of hard work, especially for young learners. However, starting earlier is not the solution for producing better English speakers. EFL teachers of young learners have to follow some strategies and techniques to understand and teach young learners better. YL Students who aged 5-12 can not spend two or three hours sitting on chairs and listening to teachers lectures as adults do. They lose interest more quickly and less able to keep motivated on tasks for long time because these students have short attention spans and areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The physical sitting reflects and affects the teacher teaching style. The teacher has to adjust the classroom environment to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ preferences to have better results in their academic achievement. First of al l, try to make the classroom walls more creative by adding pictures and colorful paintings. Also, provide opportunities for children to move around and sitting in circle. Children will learn better if they move from one area to another. Children become more attentive and active in comfortable sitting that leads to achieve higher grades and better understanding. There are some common theories related to child learning that can inform how we think of the child as a language learner. One of the major theorists in developmental psychology is Piaget. Piaget theory regarded the child as active learner and thinker. The child is alone in the world that he figures out how to take action to solve problems that learning occurs. The knowledge that results from such action is not imitated but actively constructed by the child. Piaget differentiates between assimilation and accommodation in which development can take place as a result of activity. Assimilation happens when action takes place with out any change to the child, while accommodation involves the child adjusting to features of the environment. Therefore, fromShow MoreRelatedTeaching English For Young Learner815 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfter going through the program of Teaching English to Young Learner (TEYL) course for one semester, I could realize that I have been acquiring positive inputs for my self-development. Those inputs are mostly obtained from the way the lecturer set up the learning activities and from the learning materials including journal articles and any reading materials, uncovering the concept and the issues on the practice of TEYL in Indonesia. Given those inputs during the course period, the improvement takesRead MoreTeaching English For Young Learners Essay2081 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesTeaching English to young learners has become an issue in Indonesia over the last 20 years, since the Ministry of Education in 1994 announced that English had to be taught at primary school from grade four as a loca l content subject. Ã¢â¬ËLocal content subjectÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to a compulsory subject that is not considered a core subject (The Ministry of Education and Culture, 2006). In 2013, a new national curriculum (The Ministry of Education and Culture, 2013) was launched. In this new curriculum studentsRead MoreTeaching Vocabulary to Young English Learners3602 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesTeaching English vocabulary to young learners A crucial component of learning a foreign language is the acquisition of vocabulary. For young learners, the very first words that they acquire could lay the profound basis for a better later learning of the children. This study is intended to investigate the specific application of techniques in teaching English vocabulary to young learners. I strived to investigate the current techniques in teaching vocabulary to young learners and studiedRead MoreTeaching Critical Thinking For Young Learners Essay1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe purpose of this research is to show how teaching critical thinking to young learners result in higher level critical thinking adults. Critical thinking children become critical thinking adults. Critical thinking, itself is a multi-faceted, multi-concept, multi-discipline process, that is skilled and accuracy-based. According to Paul, critical thinking involves an abundance of elements including clarity, relevancy, precision, and consistency. Critica l thinking is full of sub-categories, whereRead MoreTefl Teaching English to Young Learners2584 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesTeaching English to Young Learners with GO TEFL Result: 81% Assignment Answer the following questions based on your course readings for this module. (100 marks) Part 1: This section covers multiple choice type questions. Choose the correct answer from the possible answers provided. 1. What is one of the main differences between children and adult EFL students? (1) 1. Children are more likely to be forced to attend the classes.Ã 2. Games are effective for children but not effective forRead MoreTeaching English Vocabulary Through Pictures for Young Learners1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTeaching English Vocabulary through Pictures for Young Learners INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background All languages consist of words. Languages emerge first as words, both historically, and in terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent languages. Vocabulary plays an important role because it appears in every language skills. Mastering vocabulary is very important for the students who learn English as a foreign language. It is because vocabulary is a key to young learners understandingRead MoreThe Language Of Science And Technology1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat can explain why young learners have priority in learning languages. This notion makes governments and parents want to contribute to teaching English for young learners. Learning English for young learners has become a phenomenon. As a result of this increasing interest , a lot of books have been published and several test and measurement tools have been developed and conducted. There are a linguistic and psychological theories showing processes that assist young learners in acquiring foreignRead MoreUnde rstanding Inclusive Learning and Teaching in Lifelong Learning1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessessions to my learners. Protection of Children Act (1999) and Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) An important Part of this act to ensure all professionals working with young people have undergone a vetting process. I underwent a CRB check before starting my role. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 This is an act to ensure everyone takes responsibility to provide a safe working environment for other professional and learners. It is my responsibility ensure classrooms and teaching areas areRead MoreThe Science Behind Learner Motivation And Its Connection With Gamification Essay952 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction During Jane McGonagallÃ¢â¬â¢s 2010 TED Talk video Ã¢â¬Å"Gaming can make a better worldÃ¢â¬ , she states Ã¢â¬Å"the average young person today in a country with a strong gamer culture will have spent ten thousand hours gaming by age 21Ã¢â¬ . Such numbers alone should pique the interest of every educator in our country. Young people today spend the same amount of time learning at school as they spend gaming (TED Talk, 2010). Many people view video games as fun, exciting, and adventurous outlets where they canRead MoreThe Standards Movement : Developing High Quality Early Childhood Programs958 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesguidelines that prepared young children for school. Young learners were prepared in areas of cognitive, language and communication, physical, and social/emotional development. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE, n. d.) notes Ã¢â¬Å "that early learning standards can be a valuable part of a comprehensive, high-quality system of services for young childrenÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). However
These claims are often reinforced with partisan interpretation of history and selective evidence. The real attitude and concrete policies towards the dispute, however, are often governed by perception of short term Ã¢â¬Å"national interestsÃ¢â¬ as defined by dominant political elite of the two countries the interests that apparently are irreconcilable and non-negotiable. While each side sticks to its claims over Kashmir, the Kashmiri Muslims continue to pay a heavy price for their defiant struggle against overwhelming odds in order to exercise their right of self determination. We will write a custom essay sample on Kashmir Issue or any similar topic only for you Order Now For more than half a century the Kashmiris are oscillating between uncertainty and destitution. They continue to suffer misery and repression under illegal Indian occupation, and despite a stream of strong words and resolutions passed by the Security Council the Kashmir issue is still a bone o f contention between Pakistan and India. Rather the situation has taken a quantum leap for the worse. Indian has conceded the Security Council resolutions vindicating the right of self determination for the Kashmiris but has since reneged on its solemn commitment to the international community and the people of Kashmir. The brutal and blatant Indian repression and state sponsored terrorism against innocent Kashmiri men, women and children had few parallels in the annals of history. The valley has become a festering sore and the miseries of the oppressed people of this valley and the Ã¢â¬Å"terror let looseÃ¢â¬ by Indian forces is not less cataclysmic in nature than that of Jaliawala massacre ordered by infamous General Rex Dyer. In spite of facing all these hazards, the freedom fighters are exuberant. They have not only caused the military and political debacle to India but they have also done irreparable damage to IndianÃ¢â¬â¢s much touted and trumpeted secularism. Would it be too much to assume that Kashmir might well be the graveyard of Indian secularism. Unless sanity prevails to make the B.. P leadership realize the sheer folly o f their politico military aggression against the Kashmiris. In the name of freedom and self determination, the Kashmiris are being inured, mutilated and killed, their women raped, and their children robbed of hope for a better future. The dispute has shattered their economy polarized their society and festered a culture of violence among the people known for their non violent character. But the Kashmiris are not only the oneÃ¢â¬â¢s who suffer from the adverse consequences of the dispute. Millions in Pakistan and India re paying a high cost form direct or indirect effects of this issue. Both counties spend huge and unaffordable resources on defence which could be spent more productively on improving the lot of their people. The Kashmir issue has also led both counties to use their limited scientific knowledge and skills to develop weapons of mass destruction exposing them the an unimaginable holocaust. The dispute and military activities related to it have strengthened the pre-existing culture of violence, promoted glorification of material values and intensified the desire to take revenge from the enemy for the past humiliations. The culture will be a breeding ground for future conflicts between the two countries. Even if the Kashmir problem itself is somehow solved. The Kashmiris have long history of sufferings and oppression, the worst chapter of which was written by the Dogra rule, particularly from 1931 onwards. Contrary to their hopes the partition of the sub-continent and the emergence of two new states, instead of ending the woes of Kashmiris, multiplied them. Since then they have suffered the consequences of three wars, well documented atrocities by the Indian army since 1989 and often violent activities of the militants, a umber of them religiously motivated non Kashmiris. Since the days of Muslim Mughal Empire, Kashmir has got a prominent Muslim majority population. There are more than eighty percent Muslims and the Hindu population is less than twenty percent. Unfortunately, on the fall of Mughal Empire, the State fell to the British East Company in 1840, which sold it to the Sikh traitor Ã¢â¬Å"Raja Gulab SinghÃ¢â¬ in 1846, as reward for his betrayal of the Sikhs at a very negligible price of Rs. 75 lac. Hence onward the Muslim population of Kashmir came under continuous torment of the cruel Sikh rulers. They tried to strengthened their hold on the State with the singular aim of shattering the will of their Muslim subjects, crushing their religious zeal. They cowed them down into accepting the slavery of the Hindu minority. The genesis of the Kashmir issue is that in August 1947, when partition of the sub-continent took place, Lord Mountbatten, the viceroy of undivided India, influenced Radcliff into awarding the predominantly Muslim district of Gurdaspur, situated in the East Punjab, to India. By this treacherous act, admitted by Lord Mountbatten himself on nation wide British television, the cruel Viceroy not only subjected a Muslim majority area to the cursed Hindu domination, it also sowed the seed from which could crop up the domination of India on another predominantly Muslim State Kashmir, because it is only through a narrow strap in the Gurdaspur district that India was linked with Kashmir. The canker in no time cropped up into the Ã¢â¬Å"Kashmir ProblemÃ¢â¬ that has ever since proved to be a serious threat to the security of the South Asian region. Pakistan has made a lot of efforts to break the strangled hold of India on Kashmir, including third partyÃ¢â¬â¢s mediations but the fate of Kashmiris is still trembling in the balance. The first effort was made when immediate after partition India airlifted its forces to Srinagar. When Quaid-e-Azam was informed he ordered Incharge of Pak Army General Gracy, to send forces to Srinagar but the General refused to do so. Mujahideen tried their level best to capture the valley but they were defeated by Indian army as they were not well equipped and trained. Then India took this dispute to the Security Council. The Security Council decided that a plebiscite must be held in Kashmir. At that time India agreed but after sometime she backed out of her promise. In 1962 Pakistan lost a golden opportunity to conquer Kashmir during Indo-china war. As India requested President Kennedy of America to influence Pakistan for not taking any step regarding Kashmir during Indo-China war. Kennedy pressurized Ayub Khan and he accepted the America influence on these conditions that after Indo-China war America would help in resolving the Kashmir issue through discussion. In this regard after the Indo-China war Sheikh Abdullah came to Pakistan to initiate some discussion on Kashmir. During his tour of Pakistan Jawahar Lal Nehru died and he had to rush back. Ayub Khan tried to atone for his mistake and he prepared five thousand gorillas form army to capture Kashmir. This operation was given the name of Ã¢â¬Å"operation GibraltarÃ¢â¬ and it was done in 1965. All these gorillas caused a lot of destruction in the valley but at least they all were captured or killed by the Indian forces due to lack of planning. In revenge, India made heavy shelling on Awan Sharif, a village near border. In response to this incident Pakistani forces along with Azad Kashmir forces crossed the ceasefire line by making official announcement. During this war of 1965, at one stage the Pakistani forces advanced upto Akhnoor and they were in a position to capture Srinagar as well but under Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s influence Ayub Khan declared ceasefire. In this way Pakistan also lost this opportunity to get Kashmir. The Indian areas occupied by the Pakistani forces were also given bank to India according to Ã¢â¬Å"Tashkent AccordÃ¢â¬ . After this war, tension mounted between the two countries upto this extent that they had another war in 1971. This war resulted in separation of East Pakistan as an independent State now known as Bangladesh. The Kashmiri freedom fighters took inspiration from brave freedom fighting display of Afghanis and an upgrade uprising began in the valley. But due to lack of planning and poor diplomatic approach, this brilliant tactical move ended in a terrible strategic blunder. Before Kargil episode, international opinion was focused on Indian army repression in Kashmir. What a pity that Kargil changed this focus completely. India achieved the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s sympathies through its excellent diplomatic policies and quickly made propaganda against Pakistan mainly through its electronic media. On the other hand Pakistan became isolated in international politics and even China the most reliable friend of Pakistan gave a cold shoulder in these circumstances. The ex-Prime Minister of Pakistan had to call off the whole operation due to huge international pressure. The most unfortunate aspect of the whole Kargil operation was tht although jawans, officers and Mujahideen won the war at Kargil hills, yet they had to descend as Pakistani government lost this war on the diplomatic front. The great uprising is still going on in the valley. Pakistan tried to internationalize the Kashmiri freedom fighting and inhuman behavior of Indian forces through Kargil operation in 1999. Under this scenario of events, it is clear that a change in policy direction is necessary. New objectives have to be formed. Almost certainly the wings of our hawks have to clipped. For this purpose the following steps can be taken: One, the line of control can be transformed into the international border between Pakistan and India . India itself has been moving in this direction for a while now- in the event of its inability to stamp out the freedom struggle in Kashmir. This option is, from the Indian perspective, the least disturbing and the most aligned to its prevailing Kashmir stance. However, despite this option having support amongst some Western analysts, it is unworkable. This is because the line of control has never been accepted by the Kashmiris. Rather, it is simply a temporary cease fire line which marks a cessation of military hostilities between two antagonists and is expected to remain in place until the dispute is resolved. Two, the valley of Kashmir along with some Northern areas, must be given independence. This option although sounds very well, yet from IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view it is not beneficial because an independent Kashmir bordering China will become a permanent thereat to India. Three, Northern areas in control of Pakistan whereas Jammu and Laddakh should be given under trusteeship of United Nations for twenty years in order to eliminate the Pakistan and Indian influence and than after twenty years it should be asked from the people of Kashmir whether they want to become independent or they want to become a part of Pakistan or India. In the light of above mentioned options for the solution of Kashmir issue, the third option is very much applicable as it looks neutral in all respects. So, conceived in this way, it is a reality that Kashmir continues to define parameters of the Pak-India relationship. And unless it is resolved there is a detente between these two states, there con not be meaningful stability in South Asia, which would allow India the power status is seeks. But as a matter of fact, India has ignored the realities of history its own leaders commitments to a plebiscite in Kashmir, India has denied itself a role commensurate with its power indicators. This is the time now that India must act with the confidence of a great power and more beyond its unacceptable status quo stance in Kashmir. It is clear that India can not maintain status quo in Kashmir indefinitely that is untenable. Even if Kargil had not happen in 1999, India would have had to accept that it has failed to make Kashmir an integral part of Indian Union through a bizarre mix of the use of military force and elections. Despite the horrible facts of Indian repression in the valley and the failure of lot of efforts mentioned above one may hope that according to the concrete stance taken by Pakistan the things will be changed for Kashmiris and that day is not far away when the Kashmiris will get the reward of their sacrifices and hey would also be able to get the palm. How to cite Kashmir Issue, Essay examples
Question: Critically reflect on your current journey throughout this course / programme. Write a comprehensive account of the journey using your reflective journal entries / strategies. You may use any Reflective Models / Frameworks to explore your reflective thoughts and feelings. Answer: Introduction: I am currently employed as the head nurse in a female surgical unit and have 18 years of experience in healthcare. I also am certified in advance emergency management in trauma (6 month course). My experience in working as a healthcare professional exposed me to several challenges in healthcare industry. Much of the challenges stemmed from the inability to learn from personal experiences as well as experience of others. This emphasized the importance of reflective writing in my profession. I was able to learn the basics of reflective writing and thinking through personal studies and research, and I was able to formulate the following understanding of the topic. The process of thinking can be comprised of two distinct aspects: reflective thinking and critical thinking. Both of these are closely associated that helps to develop a balanced thinking process. It helps to justify actions, solve problems, find deeper meaning and identify scope of changes. Such knowledge can further help to build or break current assumptions, values, attitudes and beliefs and revisit experiences. These can finally amalgam to foster personal development and growth. Here reflection can be understood as a kind of personal response to events, information, situation or experiences, which enables development of thinking and learning. A good reflective practice incorporates revision of previous experiences and subjective knowledge, as well as pays emphasis on the reasons, method and consequences of actions, and helps in the examination of ones belief, values, attitude and assumptions. It therefore helps to link between the knowledge possessed by the individual with the ex periences and their learning outcomes. This can further foster development of critical thinking and analysis (Student.unsw.edu.au, 2018). Figure 1: Thinking process; source: (Student.unsw.edu.au, 2018) Reflective writing should include: responses to experiences, response to personal thoughts and feelings, scope for gaining lessons, clarity and coherence of thought, scope of developing writing skills and comprehension of what is being studied. However, the following aspects should be avoided in reflective practice like just a mere conveyance of information, pure description of the experience, biasness and straightforward judgments, simple problem solving tasks, summary of course notes and standard essays (Student.unsw.edu.au, 2018). During the discourse of Module NMNF5103, I was introduced to the concept of reflective writing, and how such practice is vital for healthcare services. The nodule helped me fully comprehend the depth of the topic, its philosophical underpinnings and how it can help to develop career and practice. I was able to learn how through reflective work competencies can be evolved. Furthermore I was able to learn how to evaluate a reflective practice, in order to ascribe lessons being learnt from experiences. Such aspects had important consequences in my professional practice as a nurse. Development of Skills in the move towards Reflective Practice: This module introduced me to the philosophical underpinnings of reflection, and its science. Through the study of the book, the Reflective Practice in Nursing (Bulman Schutz, 2013) I was able to learn the philosophical legacy surrounding thinking and knowing, the educational and critical thinking skills required of the nurses, understanding reflection and its stages, how to develop skills for reflective practice, and the importance of such skills in the nursing practice. I was able to learn that reflective practice enables a patient centric and effective practice, and helps in the development of nursing practice along with evidence based nursing practice. Understanding the history of the philosophy of reflection, starting from Aristotle, helped me understand the importance and history this idea. However, I was also able to find a flaw in the philosophy of Aristotle, as being too dependent of reflective practice, and completely ignoring the practical world. Since pure reflection cann ot help to develop idea about the real world (Schn, 2017). The pragmatic philosophy of Dewey also helped me understand how thoughts are related to action, and therefore has both practical and theoretical implications (Shusterman, 2016). This necessitates the incorporation reflective practice in professional domain, as suggested by Schon. These aspects gave me a historical overview how to concept of reflective thinking evolved by integrating intellectual thinking in a practical and theoretical context. Reflective practice can start with an emotional response, which can be either positive or uncomfortable, and allows retrospective analysis of previous experiences and events, helping to make better sense of them. This can eventually support future practice, and set precedents for future events. Effective reflective practice also depends on objectivity and critical analysis. Critical analysis can allow proper analysis of the issue in concern, and create a new understanding and appreciat ion for it. I was also able to learn the subtle similarities and differences in the understanding of reflective practice by several authors (Morse, 2015). Most of these stemmed from aspects such as experience, emotions, feelings, and perspective held by the authors. However, the overall consensus does exist in defining reflective process as reviewing of experience in a way it can be described. I learnt few key concepts related to the philosophy of reflective practice, like Praxia, Critical being and knowing. Praxis originates from ancient Greek philosophy and philosopher Paulo Freire, and describes it as an action that has embedded values and can be linked to the possession of certain knowledge. This entails responsive and purposeful action instead of deviating into an auto-pilot mode. Critical being that fosters critical reflection is also an important part of reflective practice. Critical being is different from critical thinking, as a critical being willed is able to critically r eflect upon owns development and commitments (Barnett, 2015). Expression of knowledge is also crucial, since it allows integration of what is known with what can be seen. This can help to develop a critical awareness of the world and induce such aspects in the reflective practices. However, caution has been advised by Brookfield, who pointed out the dangers of over dependency towards reflective practice. I was able to learn about his arguments against reflective practice which can induce imposter ship, cultural suicide, lost innocence and road running. He pointed out that reflective practice in nursing can turn attention to its challenges and difficulties, ultimately causing disappointment for the person, and hence lost innocence. I was able to learn the stages and levels of reflection adapted from Mezorow and Goodman. The Mezorows model comprises of affective, discriminate, judgmental, conceptual, psychic and theoretical reflection. Goodmans model comprises of reflection on objectives; reflection upon patient-nurse relation, nursing principles and practices; and reflection in an ethical and political context (Archer Bryant, 2001). This information helped me realize that several skills are required to develop reflective practice, such as self awareness, descriptive analysis, and precise recollection of memory, critical analysis, synthesis and evaluation. I was able to utilize such fin dings in practical scenarios during my educational journey, reflecting upon events, noting how I felt about the events, how others behaved, my analysis of how they might have felt, heir interpretation of the event, any significant relation of the event to other events, alternate course of thinking or action, skills needed to tac kle or manage the event, requirement of additional knowledge or skills to meet such needs, and implicat5ion of such skills and knowledge in future practice. I was able to use such reflective practice to additionally reflect upon my reflection to fully realize the importance of such skills in professional practice. Supporting practitioners in the process of reflective writing: During this module I was able to learn the various reasons in which we can use reflective practice and reasons for doing so. The importance of reflective practice, especially in learning was further emphasized during this module. Such aspect was designed to prepare students for the practice of reflection. I was also able to understand the skills needed as mentors to develop reflective practice. The requirement and necessity of reflection was suggested by Jasper, as methods to develop life strategies for survival. This can incorporate learning from the environment, and using that knowledge in practice (Johns, 2017). This can enable learning from others mistakes and ensuring such mistake does not occur in self practice. I was able to learn how much hold reflective practice has over healthcare and nursing professions, forming a bridge between the practice and lifelong development of career. I understood that in professional practice, it is important to be able to recognize the need for change in practice strategies due to reduced efficacy or newer available strategy. This identification requires reflection upon current practice, to find out scope of improvements or for change. Ultimately, such strategies can allow development of the best practices, and to advance the practice itself (Knott Scragg, 2016). The importance of reflection in learning was emphasized by the learning cycle. Understanding that the learning cycle comprises of a sequence of experience, reflection, abstraction and active testing as proposed by Kolb helped be realize hoe reflective practice can aid learning and bridge the gap between experience and abstraction. It can allow analysis of situation under different context, thereby helping to develop a deeper comprehension of the subject. This can allow us to look for deeper meanings in certain contexts that can be implemented in later scenarios (Konak et al., 2014). Questions like what was done correctly in the scenario or how else could I have done the same thing differently can be fundamental to look for such meanings in different contexts. Reflection allows scope for abstraction of ideas, and uses such information in professional practice. I was able to use this knowledge in reflective exercises on self, working with partner, or with a group. During these exercise , I was able to understand how self awareness helps to build understanding of self views, beliefs, qualities, strengths and weaknesses. It also helps us how these factors have shaped us and our thoughts. Ability to provide adequate description of scenarios also proved to be an effective strategy that allowed accurate description of persons, objects, situations, concepts or ideas involved in the scenario, and hence pain a better picture in the mind of the reader. Critical analysis allowed me to identify and illuminate my existing ideas relevant in the scenario, and exploring the feelings and challenges faced upon retrospective view (Barnett, 2015). I was able to understand how values, spirituality and openness can be a source of inspiration and motivation to take responsibility of our own learning. I t was evident to me how values molded practice through reflection. Positive values like a sense of responsibility, respect for ethical consideration and furthering knowledge can all be encompassed through the assimilation of reflective practice. Such aspects can also motivate others to adopt the practice. Furthermore, a sense of spirituality also provides a feeling of interconnectedness of all beings, and therefore emphasizes the necessity to respect all life and ensure proper care. During the module, we were encouraged to set our own learning goals and reflect upon them. We had to write journal entries incorporating the learnt skills and framework for reflective practice. This helped to identify my current state of knowledge, and the steps necessary to further it. The practice also helped me develop skills to ask questions and cle ar any doubts or gaps in my knowledge. We were encouraged to work in groups, which also allowed reflection upon the thoughts and action of others in the group, and develop communication skills. I was able to learn key skills to advance the roll of a nurse to that of a mentor by incorporating effective working relationships, facilitating learning processes, learning about assessment and accountability of actions, setting up an environment that fosters learning, creating a context for healthcare practice, supporting evidence based practice and promoting leadership. I was able to learn how these aspects can help to promote learning and reflective practices in both the mentors as well as mentees. It also helped me understand why it is important to take practice steps in directing self learning, taking responsibility of self development through active interest. Using journals and diaries in reflective practice: In this module I was able to learn the characteristics of journals that can enhance learning, the reasons why journals should be maintained, the styles of learning journals appropriate for furthering knowledge, and the uses of properly structured journals. The module started off with a refresher on reflective writing (definitions, role and uses). It reminded us the importance of critical analysis, and structured approach towards reflection. The module introduced me to the method of writing journals that can allow learning to be developed through experiences. I was introduced to the characteristic features of journals that are applicable for learning, and reasons for maintaining journals. For example, I was able to learn that the style of the journal depends on the propose for which it is written and depending on the person(s) having access to it (Hahn Galea, 2016). I was also able to learn how to style and structure a learning journal in this module. Studying the book Reflective practice in nursing I was able to understand the reflective practice is not a one off incident but a process instead. Reflective thinking is evidenced through reflective writing, and a reflective journal should incorporate critical thinking and writing in a structured form. For example, a basic structure I learnt was to segregate the data presented in the journal and the reflection upon it. Mixing them up can have confounding effects as well as leave scope for important information to be overlooked, apart from distorting the overall flow of the subject. I was able to identify essential components of reflective thinking like hindsight and retrospection, analysis of the event or idea, and identifying the implication of the event or idea. I understood that retrospection allowed looking back at the event or idea, while analyzing that involved thinking about it thoroughly and from divergent perspectives in order to build a context for the event of idea and ena ble referencing to relevant theories or models. Also, understanding implications of the findings from the analysis can alter how we practice and expand our knowledge (Howatson-Jones, 2016). An important aspect of reflective writing I appreciated is that it is a personal intellectual property. This was an important fact for me since I understood how reflective journals can also incorporate deep seated and personal thoughts and ideas, which I might not always be comfortable to share. It therefore can foster complete honesty and openness in the reflective practice. It is therefore a regular practice for journals to be written in the first person, as I have understood. Thorough analysis also meant that one has to go deeper to understand the reasons for certain action as well as reflect upon the consequences of that, and therefore build experience out of it. I was introduced to different styles of reflective writing styles like learning contract, incident analysis, essay, journal and diary, case studies and portfolio. This helped me realize how many ways reflective writing can be incorporated into professional practice and learning. Furthermore, it enabled me to gain a deepe r insight into the styles of reflective writing that can ensure its efficiency in conveying thoughts and ideas in a clear and comprehensible manner. Since journals record on going, day to day activities and ideas, it is a tool for reflection to be used on a regular basis, and its emphasis on learning is attributed to the intention showed to identify learning avenues upon retrospective analysis (Horton-Deutsch Sherwood, 2017). Learning about journal writing, I was able to identify the key characteristics of it, as is discussed next. The journals are added incrementally over time, it records events or experiences, it should focus on learning outcomes from such events, should include reflective analysis of the event. Through the progression of the module I also learnt that keeping journals served several useful purposes such as recording important experiences, facilitate the development of learning from it, help to build an understanding of the experience and what that represents, helping the development of an inquisitive nature and foster critical thinking, encourage metacognition, foster active ownership and involvement in learning, improve reflective thinking faculties, foster development of decision making and problem solving skills, help in personal growth and development, paves the road to self empowerment, supporting change in behavior or therapeutic practice, improve creativity and writing style, fos tering self expression and communication, allow planning of activities, and also help effective sharing of information. I was able to learn that an effective structure of journal can include an open page technique with revolving spiral and focused on topic areas, used as project research journals or diaries. Application of reflection to clinical practice- reflection on my own experiences This module introduced me to the types of reflection, the models and framework of reflection and utilization of reflective practice in clinical experience. The module primarily emphasized on the two main types of reflective practice or framework that can be used to reflect upon various types of experiences. I was able to learn two main types of reflection: reflection in action and reflection on action. In action reflection is done while performing the task and helps us towards its completion. Reflection on the ongoing processes helps us to reshape the course of action if necessary, and if evidenced by researches. This helps us to incorporate evidence based practice instead of a trial and error strategy. For example, while making regular journal updates, I would incorporate events that occurred recently over the continued period of care, recording observations which I could reflect upon later. On action reflection on the other hand can be used to design projects incorporating informat ion from final reflective works, or portions of journals and design strategies to ascribe lessons learnt through them. This allows the evaluation of owns critical thinking and evaluation processes. I was able to incorporate on action reflection to evaluate my reflective writing in journals, trying to draw out the strengths and weaknesses in the evaluation and key elements in the thought process, which allowed me to infer lessons learnt from those experiences. In would frequently reflect upon the actions of my co-workers and colleagues trying to learn from their experiences, which I could culminate to key lessons learnt from them. Similarly, my experiences with patients also rendered valuable information regarding how they feel and what they experience that affects their quality of life as well as their perception of the care provided to them. Such aspects helped me to device a more patient centered care, keeping in mind the concerns of the patient. I was able to utilize both the ref lective approaches in my journals and preparing the end of module papers based on the reflection upon the journals. The second focus of the module was on the frameworks of reflection that helped to device a structured approach towards the process of reflection. During the initial phase of the module I was struggling to find an appropriate structure for recording the data and my analysis of it. Often I would end up jumbling up a lot of information with short analysis interspaced and juxtaposed on each other. However, this module prepared me to express such data in a meaningful way. However, I was also able to appreciate the fact that there is no right model for reflection, and that the model of reflection used should be depending upon the propose of it, and the right model should eventually be based upon the one which feels most comfortable and can elucidate the knowledge gathered from the experience clearly. I also learnt that the reflective writing style and efficacy can be improved by combining different models, that is, using a particular model for analysis, and then incorporating questions fro m other models for a better critical review of the scenario in question. The models that I was introduced to during the module were: Five Stage Model by Dewey, Reflection in Action model by Schon, Learning Cycle by Kolb, Framework Guiding Reflective Activity by Borton, Paolo Freires model, Gibbs Reflective Cycle, Johns model for structured reflection, Driscoli cycle, Stephensons model and Goodmans theory of reflection. These models or frameworks introduced me to different approaches towards the structuring of reflective work, in a manner that it makes more sense within a given context. I frequently used Gibbs reflective Cycle and Koibs learning cycle to evaluate my learning processes, using Schons In Action reflective pattern to update regular journals, and also utilized Goodmans Theory to reflect upon the information gathered in the journals. During the module I had to prepare essay differentiating my understanding of the two reflective processes, and my understanding of the importance of reflective practices in healthcare. I was also able to identify several barriers to reflection both external and internal, which helped me to implement strategies to improve reflective practice addressing the barriers. For example, one significant internal barrier was objectivity that is the ability to describe things without any bias. Such as a challenging aspect given the emotional involvement needed in reflective work. However, a structured approach helped me to focus the emotions in a more meaningful manner to reflect upon specific experiences. I was able to use this strategy for the evaluation of a personal experience, where I utilized Gibbs reflective cycle to analyze the situation and ascribe a lesson being learnt from it. Assessment and evaluation of reflection In this module I was able to discuss the assessment of reflection in terms of exploration criteria the criteria helped me evaluate my reflective skills based on certain predetermined outcomes. The formed the basis of tools for the assessment process. I was able to summarize these needs in the practice of registered nursing. I was also able to identify key issues with the process of assessment of reflection and evaluate methods for assessment and evaluation of reflection. The module primarily highlighted on the process of assessment of reflection as well as its criteria for exploration. This was an important aspect since it allowed evaluation of practices, and identifying its strengths and weaknesses. It also helped me identify the degree to which the knowledge or skill from reflection have affected my actions. For example I was able to measure my progress by analyzing completion of key objectives leading up to the development of skills. During the discourse, I was able to understand the importance of ask and observe so that evaluation of both espoused and present scenario can be done. The exploration criteria can help in effective evaluation of reflective practice, as I have understood firsthand evaluating my own work. The criterion I learnt during the module were a) a knowledge base being developed b) advancement of old skills and development of new ones c) attitudes and values that have changed d) participation in reflective activities e) initiatives in the development of clinical practice. Such criteria are very helpful in the context of clinical care, and emphasize the importance of knowledge in the development and improvement of skills and practice. Such can therefore help in career development as well as personal growth (Phillips, 2016). An understanding of the elements that needs to be assessed in a reflective practice was an essential element for my success in the module. I was able to clearly identify what aspects that need evaluation in the assessment. Understanding of the structure of reflective work was pivotal to that end; I was able to understand that reflective practice was a natural talent for many while it was a skill that needed to be developed in others. Consequently, everyone tended to have a different approach towards reflective practice, and followed a different flow of thought. However, the presence of frameworks helped me to learn the process fairly easily, and I was able to critically evaluate and analyze my experiences. I was also able to learn about the various levels of reflection as proposed by several authors. Even though much of the structure and hierarchy of the levels are still contested and argued, one thing remains certain, that such levels allows the formation of grids for reflection. Re flection is a continuous process that utilizes the skills for reflective thinking and implementing such thoughts to create changes in practice. I understood that such practice involved both cognition and action, and helped provide new perspectives to experience, helped to bring about a behavioral change and improved readiness for application of knowledge and ensure commitment towards action. During the module I also learnt the skills required by facilitators of reflective learning. I learnt how open mindedness, effective communication, group management skills, maintaining diversity and providence of disclosure can facilitate reflective practice. This can help to encourage the group to further develop their practice through effective use of reflection. I also understood that as facilitators, personal opinions and biases should be kept at bay, and an objective focus is to e maintained. I was introduced to different tools of reflection like verbal and written methods. From the perspective of stakeholders, a uniform understanding of reflective practice must also exist. And during the module our group was able to exhibit such an uniformity in the understanding of the concept. Such aspects were based upon the understanding of the various challenges in the assessment of reflection and includes: an inability to introspect and transcend personal biases, lack of clarity in the und erstanding of reflection, understanding the levels of reflection and how it develops, confusion as to whether assess the process or the outcomes, summative assessment causing honesty barriers, lack of proper assessment tools, skills possessed by facilitators and political or financial constraints. Such overview helped me understand the possible sources of the challenges and therefore try to avoid as much of such aspects as possible to maintain effective reflective practice. Developing reflective practice through learning support During the overall duration of the academic discourse, I was involved in seminars and interactive discussions and participations. There were 5 seminars, each for three hours, where I was able to use reflective practice in the development of presentations. In the first seminars I was able to demonstrate my knowledge of the theoretical and philosophical underlining of the practice of reflection, describe various levels and stages of reflection, skills needed to develop reflection and its proper usage. In second seminar I was able to demonstrate my understanding of how reflective writing is important in professional practice and identify skills required by both learners and mentors to promote reflective practice. In the third seminar I was able to describe the characteristics of a reflective journal and why maintenance of journal is important. I was able to cite from my personal experience as a nurse, how maintaining journal helped me keep track of everything. I was able to incorporate different styles of journal based on the context, and demonstrate proper utilization of journals to develop practice. In the fourth seminar, I was able to explain the different types of reflection and reflective frameworks, which I incorporated in the presentations. I was able to show how each of the types and frameworks can be utilized under various scenarios, reflecting upon my own experiences. In the final seminar, I was able to successfully evaluate reflection based on exploration criterion, demonstrate understanding of the tools for assessment and identify key issues in the assessment of reflection as well as devise methods for effective assessment and evaluation of reflection. I was able to demonstrate these tools on my own reflective work, further helping me develop my evaluation and analytical skills. In addition to the face to face seminars, I also received considerable support through online discussions with facilitators and course mates. This helped me share relevant information with the course mates, filling in any knowledge gaps identified by the process, and also share development plans for comparison. As a group, we were able to cross reflect upon each other work, and evaluate each other based on the known framework. This helped us to gain fluency in the process, and develop our understanding of it. We would often hit roadblocks in this process, which was then clarified by the facilitators. The online availability of the facilitators enabled easy access to help and support, which was crucial in the successful completion of the module on time. Such help was also pivotal in the preparation for exams; as it helped revision of the key concepts of enable discussions to revise our knowledge. Additionally, feedbacks and inputs from the facilitators were key elements to enable the development of the necessary skills for reflective work and gain knowledge of the tools for the evaluation of the reflection. It helped us identify key areas of improvement, where work could be done, and skills that can be further honed (Forbes et al., 2016). Conclusion: Journey through the module on reflective practice helped me to develop skills needed for efficient reflective writing, and develop understanding of its appropriate usage. I was able to use this method to reflect upon my clinical practice and experience, and develop my career as a nurse. I was able to critically analyze my thought process in a clear, coherent and structured format that also helped to identify lessons to be leant though the experience. Such knowledge helped me cater to the specific needs of patients and identify any gaps in my own knowledge. I started maintaining journals to record everyday experiences, reflecting upon the events and then evaluating them. During the module, I was involved in several seminars and exams that tested my skills. This proved to be an essential tool to further develop in my ability to analyze and evaluate my own skills. I also learnt how reflective practice can be facilitated, and how a mentor and facilitator can foster this practice in clini cal settings. Working as a head nurse, such aspect can be fruitful to encourage new learners to take active control over their own knowledge development and career growth. I was able to develop skills of a mentor and a leader, to be able to guide my team towards a better practice, which improved the quality of care. The journey through then module could be summarized through the learning outcomes achieved at the end of the module like the ability to identify the stages and levels of reflection, understanding the significance of reflective practice, developing knowledge on how and where to apply reflective practice, learn different approaches to facilitate reflection, reflective skills required by mentors, learning the proper usage of journals and how to efficiently structure them, learning about challenges and issues pertaining to reflective practice and also helped me understand the importance of adopting such practice in nursing. I was able to relate each of such aspects with my experience, and was able to develop these skills to become a better and more efficient professional. I hope that I can inculcate such values to new learners, helping them develop their own career and achieve success, and partake in the attempt to improve healthcare. References: Archer, N., Bryant, P. (2001). Investigating the role of context in learning to read: A direct test of Goodman's model.British Journal of Psychology,92(4), 579-591. Barnett, R. (2015). A curriculum for critical being. InThe Palgrave handbook of critical thinking in higher education(pp. 63-76). Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Bulman, C., Schutz, S. (Eds.). (2013). Reflective practice in nursing. John Wiley Sons. Forbes, H., Oprescu, F. I., Downer, T., Phillips, N. M., McTier, L., Lord, B., ... Simbag, V. (2016). Use of videos to support teaching and learning of clinical skills in nursing education: A review.Nurse education today,42, 53-56. Hahn, K. A., Galea, S. (2016). The Role of Professional Journals and Societies in the Future of a Field: A Reflection on the Partnership Between the American Journal of Epidemiology and the Society for Epidemiologic Research.American journal of epidemiology,183(5), 367-371. Horton-Deutsch, S., Sherwood, G. D. (2017).Reflective practice: Transforming education and improving outcomes(Vol. 2). Sigma Theta Tau. Howatson-Jones, L. (2016).Reflective practice in nursing. Learning Matters. Johns, C. (2017).Becoming a reflective practitioner. John Wiley Sons. Knott, C., Scragg, T. (Eds.). (2016).Reflective practice in social work. Learning Matters. Konak, A., Clark, T. K., Nasereddin, M. (2014). Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle to improve student learning in virtual computer laboratories.Computers Education,72, 11-22. Morse, J. M. (2015). Critical analysis of strategies for determining rigor in qualitative inquiry.Qualitative health research,25(9), 1212-1222. Phillips, J. A. (2016). Student self-assessment and reflection in a learner controlled environment.arXiv preprint arXiv:1608.00313. Schn, D. A. (2017).The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Routledge. Shusterman, R. (2016).Practicing philosophy: Pragmatism and the philosophical life. Routledge. Student.unsw.edu.au. (2018). Reflective Writing Guide | UNSW Current Students. Student.unsw.edu.au. Retrieved 21 February 2018, from https://student.unsw.edu.au/reflective-writing
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
The video games phenomenon is somewhat new in this modern society. Although they often to be entertaining, the contents have become more violent and disturbing as computing technology has become much more advanced. These days, the popularity of violent video games has caused an increase in controversy. Parents and experts feel that some games are just too violent and they think that the violent will spill over into the real world. However, I strongly believe violent video games do not cause an increase in aggression in adolescents. In fact in many ways violent video games benefit the children that are playing them. Besides the violent contents video games have several positive aspects. Based on my experience video games can push childrens competence to the limit by forcing them to master certain ability to overcome the obstacles in the level. For example, Tom Clancys Rainbow Six series have become one of the games that require a solid teamwork. We will write a custom essay sample on Violent Video Games or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The player acts as the leader of an elite anti-terrorist squad consist of 3-4 members. At the beginning of the game players can choose how to infiltrate the terrorist compound; either by planting an explosive on the door, using a fast rope from the rooftop, or simply breaching into several doors to create a surprise assault. These options will ignite the sense of logical thinking, and strategy formations in which formal education does not offer. Although on the other hand some people already know some of the positive aspects of video games they still believe that the negative will overcome the positive ones. Some people believe that the connection between violent games, and real violence is also fairly intuitive. In playing the games kids are likely to become desensitized to gory images;which could make them less disturbing, and perhaps easier to deal with in real life. While video games arent about violence their capacity to teach can be a good thing. Though violent video games might expose children to violent behavior the amount of violence are not as great as the ones in movies, and television. The news is filled with stories of war, and murder. Nearly every movie contains some forms of violence. Plus these two media are different from games in a very important way because they involve real people, not computer-generated characters. Many people argue that their children waste their time inside playing these games, but while time spent outside is good time spent playing games isnt wasted; violent video games actually improve reflexes, reaction time, and fine motor skills. Therefore giving kids that play games some advantages that other kids doesnt have. Aside from the aspects video games are also the tool of social interactions. Friendships can sometimes be developed through playing video games,and ultimately keeping them away from drug usage, and violent activities. Most of the video games today have either multiplayer, or online capabilities. For example, I made several gaming friends from playing Call of duty modern warfare 3 online. The game focuses on eliminating the other team;hence teamwork has a major role in succeeding the game. With a headset , my team members, and I plan a strategy effectively;and sometimes talk about our backgrounds. Personally meeting lots of people online can help develop team work as well as developing social skills because for some people starting a conversation with a stranger can be really tough. In general video games is an astonishing tool to keep children entertained during leisure time. So in conclusion, violence in video games is shown to be harmless and in some cases it may even help you. It has no effects on violence in real life, and can possibly save your life one day.
Monday, April 13, 2020
Classical Argumentative Essay Sample on EducationIn this article, I will discuss some of the techniques used in an excellent classical argumentative essay sample on education. The idea is to use the skills and knowledge of these writers to help you make a point in a meaningful way.To begin with, you need to ask yourself what your expertise is in a specific field such as education or history. Do you know anything about or have some insight into the works of those who have written, spoken or conducted research on the subject?How good are you at communicating your ideas in a way that is interesting and fun? How well do you relate to others? These questions are all extremely important for you to be able to effectively communicate with people.The next step would be to read a number of these authors so that you can get a feel for their style. Do you find that you are finding it easier to read and understand the arguments and views expressed in the work? If you do, you will want to move ont o the next section where you will find some examples of the same writing style.These writers share the same passion and dedication for writing that you do, so they all have a number of different kinds of styles. While some might write in a more terse and concise style, others will describe the whole idea in a simple and engaging manner.This means that the style differs significantly depending on which one you pick. Most writers try to keep their prose on the formal side, but I would recommend you stick to this until you can really get used to how good and polished the style can be.There are many other reasons why you should consider using these essay samples. Some are simply better than others. It really does depend on your own personal situation and how much time you have for reading.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Crucible Monologue essays Setting: (The scene opens with Elizabeth and John alone in the cell. Elizabeth has been sent to plea with John so that he will confess and save his life. The cell is lit by the light coming from the rising of the sun through the cold metal bars. The cold morning symbolizes the shivering events that are about to unfold. Both, dressed in rags and looking rather weak. Extremely heavy handcuffs chain both of their wrists together. Elizabeth and John are sitting on a bench holding each others hands, staring into each others eyes. Elizabeth is now three months pregnant, very tired, dirty, and weak. John has grown out a long beard and the only thing keeping him warm at night were the thoughts of his unborn child and loving wife. John begins to speak but Elizabeth cuts him off before he could say a word. She is speaking in a very quite and fragile voice, it seems as though every word is a struggle.) Elizabeth: Oh dearest John, how I have longed to see thee these 3 months past. I have dreamt and prayed for the chance to see thee once more. The nights have been long and cold without thee, the days lonely and sad. I beggeth of thee to confess John. I have gotten word that thou are to be hanged after sunrise. I have been sent to thee as final attempt to plea with thou to save thou life, to save our life together. (She stands up and paces around herself then stops) I am yet six month before my time, and I cannot imagine raising this child without thee. I am aware that if your life is spared by your confession that we will have a lot to work on, but I love thee John. Thou knowest just as well as I know that neither of us deserve to be in here and the town is with us as well. (Elizabeth walks over towards the cell door and leans against it, speaking in a more calm voice) There has been word that the town is speaking of rebellion against the court. The entire town realizes that all of the accusations made from each of the girls, were fr...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Come With Come With Come With By Maeve Maddox Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to the movies. Do you want to come with?Ã¢â¬ A reader in England has noticed that this elliptical use of Ã¢â¬Å"come withÃ¢â¬ on British television and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care for it: I find it to be an expression I prefer not to use, as it sounds grammatically wrong and very odd, even though, were I in Germany, I would automatically and happily use the equivalent expression Kommen sie mit. Do you know the age of the English Come with? There is an example in the OED of a 19th century elliptical use of with without an object: in slang use, in reference to liquor means mixed with sugar, having sugar added; usually in phrases hot or cold with. 1836Ã Ã Dickens Sketches by Boz 1st Ser. I. 84Ã Ã Two glasses of rum-and-water Ã¢â¬Ëwarm with- Ã¢â¬â¢. 1843Ã Ã R. S. Surtees Handley Cross I. x. 202Ã Ã Fatch me up a glass of cold sherry negus with. 1843Ã Ã R. S. Surtees Handley Cross I. xv. 322Ã Ã Ã¢â¬ËTake a glass of brandy,Ã¢â¬â¢ said she Ã¢â¬Ëhot with? or cold without?Ã¢â¬â¢ Where did the modern usage originate? The readerÃ¢â¬â¢s mention of German Ã¢â¬Å"Kommen sie mit,Ã¢â¬ points to the answer. Large numbers of German, Norwegian, Swedish, and Dutch immigrants to the U.S. settled in the midwest, near the Great Lakes. Ã¢â¬Å"Kommen sie mitÃ¢â¬ migrated into the local English dialect. English is, after all, a Germanic language. Old English mid, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"with,Ã¢â¬ survived into Middle English and was sometimes spelled mit. Many American speakers dislike the usage as well: Why do people say, Ã¢â¬Å"Can I come withÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want to go withÃ¢â¬ ? That Ã¢â¬Å"withÃ¢â¬ hanging on the end of the sentence has always driven me crazy. That reaction seems a bit extreme. My Chicago relations say it. I find it odd, but endearing. It is, however, a regionalism that has not acquired the status of standard English. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 Examples of Passive Voice (And How To Fix Them)Between vs. In Between50 Synonyms for "Song"
Monday, February 17, 2020
Accounting theory in Australia - Essay Example One such standard that has been much debated is the fair value accounting measure. Fair value accounting has gained popularity in the recent years as the standard for measuring assets and liabilities by firms. Although, fair value accounting has been accepted and adopted by firms across the world, it is still considered to be inefficient in its utility. Perhaps it is because of the discrepancy in the financial systems and conceptual frameworks which have given rise to the chaos that is evident in todays corporate environment. In the following discussion the researcher shall discuss the impact of fair value accounting and disclosures based on current accounting standards, conceptual frameworks and theoretical assumptions with the view to enumerate on its viability, utility and efficiency. International accounting standards are broadly divided into the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ independent regulatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ approach and the European public ownership approach. The European approach had been based on the theoretical framework that since corporations are usually serve their own profit interest, it is up to the government to curb private monopolies and monitor their activities. On the other hand the US independent commissions for monitoring and enforcing regulation had been developed with the view to give the market economic independency on the premise of laissez faire. Ironically, as Gaffikin (2005) points out, both the systems fail to achieve its objective of regulation as a result of market inefficiency and economic regulation consideration. This led to the development of a regulation system based on interest theory - that is serving both the private and public interests (Gaffikin 2005). Today, accounting standards across the world is based on the US Financial Accounting Standard Board and the International Accounting Standard Board. Australia follows similar measurement
Monday, February 3, 2020
HRD - Essay Example However, in accomplishing this particular objective of long-run sustainability, employee absenteeism rate is argued as a major challenge for Human Resource Managers (HRM) that is quite likely to result in declining productivity of the organisation, increasing conflicts amid the employees and hindered sustainability of the entire organisation (Cascio & Boudreau, 2010). Emphasising the severity of the effects of absenteeism, the discussion henceforth focuses on examining the issue on the basis of critical theoretical explanation. In this regard, various relevant theories have been considered in order to evaluate the factors that contribute towards the increasing the number of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ absenteeism rate in the modern day context. EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Absenteeism Rate Employee absenteeism is often attributed as one of the most serious and challenging issues prevailing in organisations today. It is evident that employees are among the key assets for HRM in context to their operationa l efficiency and sustainability. Efficient and dedicated performances of the employees result in higher productivity, which further tends to have favourable impacts on the operations of the business. Conversely, inefficient performance of employees has often been observed to have led to lower productivity, which further contribute to a continuous decline in the company performance altogether. Absenteeism is viewed as a habitual pattern of absence deciphered by employees obstructing them from executing their responsibilities in the most effective manner. It is worth mentioning in this context that according to the modern managerial notion, high absenteeism rate of employees in workplace is often attributed as a by-product of poor work satisfaction owing to lack of motivation and morale (Cascio & Boudreau, 2010). To gain a comprehensive understanding on the increasing rate of employee absenteeism, certain relevant theories and concepts have been explained in the discussion below. Soci al Learning Theory of Employee Self-management Social Learning theory is a particular concept that has been applied in the workplace with the intention to encourage employees towards obtaining adequate learning experiences in their working process. This theory can be observed to be directly relevant with the behaviour and psychology of the employees. The theory basically states that people in the society learn mostly through their personal experiences that are acquired by their presences among others or through social interactions to be more precise. The theory further depicts that people in the society mainly learn by imitating or by observing the approach or actions of others. It is deemed that this theory have both positive and negative aspects associated with it in context to the workplace attitude of employees (French, 2011). According to Bandura (1971), employees in the workplace learn from others in a particular process, which includes attention, retention, reproduction and m otivation. Employees in the workplace is deemed to pay attention to what others do, often without judging the interpersonal differences or the after-effects of such a behaviour. As per the Social Learning theory, absenteeism habits of other employees might also be considered as a factor that attracts employees in the workplace and causes negative effects on their performances. As per this theory, the
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Effects of Austerity Measures on Communities Socio-economic and political factors identified in the community of Croydon and the links to key concepts and theories from sociology and social policy. Introduction This essay focuses on the socio-economic and political factors identified in the community of Croydon. It sets out to explain how these factors link with key concepts and theories from sociology and social policy and how this impacts on the community. The main focus here is on the factors that have exacerbated the issues faced by the community. Social capital will form the base for most of the arguments and points. The Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary (2008) defines socio-economic as related to the differences between groups of people caused by, mainly their financial situation. It can therefore be argued that these are factors and experiences that form and define these groups of people and also these are the factors that decide whether these groups are condemned to a life of poverty or not. The Community: Croydon (see definition of a community above) Croydon, with a population of three hundred and eighty two thousand (382k) people (www.london.gov.uk) has the second largest population of all the London Boroughs. It also has the largest number of people aged under fifteen numbering 84k. According to Councillor Tony Newman, also the Chair of the Local Strategic Partnership, Croydon is undergoing transformation to become a modern European city and can do better without bad publicity such as knife crime. It is a diverse community with a diverse ethnicity, faiths, sexual orientation and academic standing all working in different jobs to serve various needs of the community. Knife Crime: A bane for the local community The Community of Croydon has been named one of the worst five amongst London Boroughs for knife crime across London. The community is facing unprecedented levels of knife crime which is attributed to budgetary cuts to services that provide social capital to young people and other services such as policing. When the people who police and monitor crime say so, it is difficult to ignore the issue. The Association of Police and Crime Commissioners argues that with reductions in staff levels and support services already made, further budget constraints will lead to difficult questions on how best to structure police forces to respond to changes in crime, and what this would mean for the local service provided to the public. In the month of February 2017 alone, the Mayors Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC) reported 94 knife injuries committed by teenagers under the age of 15. While the Home Office has no precise definition of knife crime, however knife enabled crime includes a variety o f other offences involving a bladed weapon, for example it is an offence to cause or threaten harm with a knife and if used in a robbery or assault, it aggravates the offence. How the Council Gets Its Information on Knife Crime: But before delving deeper into this issue, it is very important to put into perspective how the community of Croydon and local authority gather information on this bane of knife crime and also give a backdrop to the motivating factors that influence the compilation of this information. In 2008 a teenage boy named Shakilus Townsend was stabbed several times by other teenagers in Thornton Heath, a district of Croydon. This culminated in the council instituting an investigation named Scrutiny on Knife Crime to focus on teenagers, perpetrators and victims alike. (Available at Croydon.gov.uk) The Croydon council gathers and obtains information about knife crime through public meetings held with the UK Youth Parliament, vulnerable young people, Metropolitan Police Authority, the Croydon Youth Crime Prevention Strategy and other stakeholders. Meetings are also held with secondary schools, Pupil Referral Units, Head Teachers and the British Broadcasting Corporation. Social Capital: Social Capital has many definitions, but to put into social work context, the simplest definitions that fit in well with social work are used here. Coleman (1990) argues that social capital is defined by its function as it is not a single entity, but a variety of different entities having two characteristics in common: They all consist of some aspect of social structure, and they facilitate certain actions of individuals who are within the structure. However, Brehm and Rahn (1997, p. 999) put it in another way arguing that social capital is the web of cooperative relationships between citizens that facilitate resolution of collective action problems. It can therefore be argued that social capital has an economical value in it and that this value increases the competitive advantage of individuals through networking through organisations like the local authority provided facilities. The World Bank defines social capital as institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a societys social interactions. The World Bank goes on to elaborate by stating that social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society it is the glue that holds them together. While knife crime is one of the major social problems facing this community, this essay seeks to highlight why budgetary cuts, which are a consequence of social capital deprivation, are an indirect consequence of the knife crime coupled with other social issues The Poisoned Chalice of Neo-Liberalism: As social capital has already been defined above, it is important to put it into perspective so that there is an understanding that the reduction in services that provide social capital for the young has come about as a result of neo-liberalism, so there is a link between The Liberal Democrats whose ideological tradition is liberalism, an ideology that favours privatisation, and the contraction of the public sector/services, reinforced by its ideology of neo liberalism on the coat tails of a book titled the Orange Book: Reclaiming Liberalism. Thomson and Thomson (2008) argue that politics plays a fundamentally important role in shaping social work and therefore it could be argued that it is important to buttress some points with an understanding of the role therefore political processes play in social work. Now back to the Liberal Democrats. Nick Clegg later became leader and he would later use his presence and influence in the Coalition to oversee the shutting down of some Sure Star ts childrens centres and Connexions in the name of economic liberalism. This policy also oversaw the privatisation of job seeking being contracted to a private individual operating as if it was under the auspices of the Department of Works and Pension (DWP) using a website under the name Universal Jobmatch where thousands of fake jobs were advertised by a private contractor who was paid for roles which should have been performed by the DWP. Incredibly the scandal which left jobseekers at the mercy of this government approved scam, fizzled out without much fanfare. A lot of jobseekers who were already being deprived of services such as the Connexions had to face the frustration of applying for nonexistent jobs. To put it into context, Connexions was a support service for young people, a service that was meant to help them with advice on topics including education, housing, health, relationships, drugs, and finance. Now these are young people who were most in need. An argument may be developed that says these young people, through a policy of neo-liberalism are likely to develop personal problems and that these personal problems will overlap into a societal problem. These are the apparent knock on effects. Political Austerity, a function of neo-liberalism affecting social capital: Battle and Lewis argue that a persons education is closely linked to their life chances, income and well being. When the Conservative and Liberal coalition government came into power, they made tackling our record debts, as they called it then, one of their cornerstones in dealing with debt. The Liberal Democrats are well remembered by most students for reneging on a policy to scrap university fees altogether. Not only did they renege on this policy, but they went on and signed up to an agreement to actually allow institutions to charge fees up to nine thousand pounds. Now a prospective student from a deprived background would have seen the prospect of finishing university with a debt of over thirty thousand pounds not such an attractive prospect. The Croydon Guardian newspaper interviewed 4 teenagers aged 16 to 18 to try and get to the bottom of the scourge of knife crime in their community. One of the teenagers had this to say: Adults should give children more job opportunities and training. This will attract other teenagers too. We need to ask what they like doing so they have the chance to do what they want. I was part of a gang, but for what? Sometimes there is no explanation. Unquote. The other three teenagers also had more or less the same to say. Another major point of concern that came out of the interviews was that young people carry knifes as a form of defence due to the large numbers of gangs dominating the community. They feel they have to protect themselves. Mills (1959) links what happens to an individuals life with social structures of the wider world. Mills states that the private troubles of men/women effectively trapped them in their lives as they understood only their immediate personal difficulties rather than understanding what was happening to them particularly in reference to historic and histories of their surroundings. These young men and women feel trapped. It can therefore be argued that if it were not for cuts that affect the number of police in the streets, these teenagers would not feel the need to carry knifes as the police would be there to protect them. Unfortunately this policy of austerity does not affect teenagers only.Ã Some Sure Starts were at the receiving end of these cuts as real spending fell, so states the Nuffield report. To put it into context again there is a need to understand the core purpose of Sure Starts. They were actually developed in consultation with the Childcare Act 2006 and therefore it could be argued that their closure indirectly impinges on the development of children. Their core purpose, as the government states, is to make available universal and targeted early childhood services either by providing the services at the centre itself or by providing advice and assistance to parents, mothers and fathers, and prospective parents in accessing services provided elsewhere. Local authorities must ensure that childrens centres provide some activities for young children on site. What can be argued here is that a child who was nine in 2010 when the coalition government took power is now a teenager and poorer i n terms of education and social capital due to the austerity which affected the number of these centres made available. The knock on effect is that this cycle is being repeated. If society is going to deprive young people of socialisation at an early age surely what can be expected of the this generation in terms of what they contribute to the well being of a community and the society at large? Cunningham and Cunningham (2009) observe that troubles of individuals are inherently personal and unique however they happen as a result of specific set of socio-economic and political circumstances. Again the Nuffield report, already mentioned above, goes on to state that the issues that are the principal concern of its inquiry are social outcomes, poverty and inequality and argue that the Coalition had inherited a better situation than its predecessor Labour whose social programmes had delivered expanded public services. Socio-economic gaps in access to services had decreased. Economic and social outcomes, such as pupil achievements and child poverty, had also generally not improved, while differences between the most and least deprived social groups narrowed, the report goes on toÃ state. The Deprivation of Social Capital: It can be argued, taking in all the information above, that the exercise of shutting down some Sure Starts and Connexions branches deprived teenagers and other young adults opportunities that could have prepared them better industry leaders of tomorrow. It deprived them of opportunities to socialise and share ideas with like minded peers. The legislations attempt to stop people from carrying knives has not been that successful due to the fact that knife crime is still prevalent in Croydon. Government has imposed penalties of up to 4 years maximum for carrying a knife however this legislation is evidently not a deterrent as knife crime is still prevalent in that community. The law allows for pressure groups to work in collaboration with the society and the police in tackling the crime. However according to Hill and Irving (2009) choices of what pressure groups can work on are dictated by local interests. One can see how the weakness of an individual voter is strengthened through belonging to an influential group. Hill and Irving go on to argue that direct interventions in elections motivated by local issues are rare. This essentially means come election time the issues that really matter to the community are put in the back burner hence the cycle of these social problems still persist unabated. Charities and the MET: Campaigns such as No Knifes Better Lives look at the individual, putting pressure on the family to change with very little change in the role of the state in improving the economic circumstances of the victims. The No Knifes Better Lives approachs challenge is that it focuses on the implement used to commit the crime ignoring the causes or underlying socio economic circumstances. One can argue that if their campaign was focused on getting rid of poverty, access to equal opportunities and education, in the long run this might reduce knife crime. Another organisation helping young people refrain from using knife is the Turnaround centre. This is a place where young people can drop in and ask for advice and support. Incredibly these organisations rely on the magnanimity of well wishers for funding which actually limits their scope of how much they can do. According to the census figures, Croydon has one of the largest Afro/Caribbean populations. This makes it very difficult for the police to enforce the Stop and Search due to the McPherson reports branding of the Metropolitan Police (MET) being institutionally racist, something the MET actually admitted. To compound that, when the practice was in use it disproportionately targeted Black males. So this dilemma has made the police lose out on an otherwise valuable crime fighting tool. The police are currently working together with many stakeholders in addressing problems in the community. In the same breath they should have a social worker working with them and becoming an acceptable face of the solution to the community. One can argue that social workers are always at arms length dealing with issues, rather should be on the frontline instead of being reactive in dealing with societal issues. According to the Health and Care Professions Councils (HCPC) standards of proficiency (SoP), social workers must be able to recognise and respond appropriately to unexpected situations and manage uncertainty. It could be argued that this might just be possible in an idealistic world but not in a profession that faces so much austerity cuts. Social workers, by the nature of their profession, have the unique advantage of seeing and understanding how poverty and discrimination affect lives and thereby communities. So it is a big ask for them to strike a balance between meeting SoP and at the same time lawfully practice. It is therefore imperative that social work should be a protected profession, protected from cuts forever. The social work profession, according to the International Federation of Social Workers, expects the practitioners to promote social change, help to foster human relationships and in the process liberate people through empowerment. Again it becomes very difficult, o ne may argue, that you can operate in an environment that prioritises money above the welfare of human beings. Recommendations: The Croydon council has recommended the continuous review of developing a range of services for all young people in Croydon. Specifically, investment in expanded opening hours for places where young people can be into the late afternoon and late at night during summer months should be explored and future opportunities for younger children actively considered. Another important recommendation was that the local authority should give consideration to the creation of a Croydon Youth Council as this could be used as a vehicle or channel for the youth to influence the decisions that affect them. Policing along with social work should and must be protected from budgetary cuts as they are at the forefront of fighting crime. Conclusion: Eliot Spitzer the former American Democratic politician once remarked The world has conducted a macro-economic experiment since the cataclysm of 2008. In Europe, the fans of austerity have had their chance, and the results have been a disaster. Unquote. This essay has stated the case why austerity measures, in other words, social and economic policies are impacting on the day to day lives of people mostly young people. The current government and its predecessor the Conservative/Liberal coalition continue to deprive young people of opportunities that could have made them better people or leaders of tomorrow and unfortunately their policies will continue to impact badly on how social workers deliver their duties in the communities they serve, as they restrict their ability to practice. People are losing services essential to their well being and that cannot be good for the well being of their mental state. The British Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics states that principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to the work of a social worker; it can therefore be argued, how can social workers foster a just environment when they have to work under an austerity environment which is unjust and cannot support them. This essay argues that austerity is state sponsored human rights abuse. Words: 2985 AÃ reflective summary response to the feedback from peers on the formative presentation Bruce (2013) argues that the process of reflection can be described as the detailed thinking you may undertake about an event or experience, and the new perspective or knowledge you gain as a result of this process. The compliments my group received from peers about how well we worked together as a unit resonated well with and reinforced the theoretical framework stages of group development described by Tuckman (1965) as norming, forming, storming and performing. Our group was not that difficult to form as we already had developed interpersonal relations through meeting in the canteen and lectures. Interestingly, due to being the eldest in the group, I seemed to command respect from group members as they presumed being older made me wiser. However some members felt age should not be a criterion for choosing a group leader. As I had already studied each group members strengths and weaknesses, I simply told them the reasons why they should choose me, at the same time delegating duties for the presentation. Everyone seemed happy with the delegated duties and so the team structure took shape.Ã At the norming stage we set up a collaborative strategy through a whatsapp group. A member would post their idea of the delegated role then we would all look at it and have our input. We found this to be an excellent medium of communication and sharing of ideas. At this stage we also lost our sixth group member due to pregnancy. Our performance stage appeared to be the easiest as each member wanted the group to succeed. Great and not so great ideas flowed from members as we worked hard to meet the deadline. We complimented each other where it was deserved. It can therefore be argued that the group formation process of our team was an event I have just reflected about. Words: 339 AÃ short evaluation of an interview undertaken with a professional about their role and experiences of providing services in a community-based organisation. Interviewing a Nurse Assessor When planning for my interview I thought about Egans (2014, pg.136.) use of probes to explore and clarify points of view, decisions and proposals. This gave me an idea about how I was going to probe the nurse so she could engage and tell me in detail the scope of her role and challenges she faces in her role. I was very interested in the direct positive impact she was having on the community hospital too. This community hospital is what could be described, as, argued byÃ Cunningham and Cunningham (2008) a traditional geographic community due to its location and shared space, proximity and years of shared experience which are seen to have inculcated certain common values and norms and there is a sense of permanence, shared responsibility, duty and mutual support. Adams et al in Brint (1994) argue that an organisation should have valued professionals who combine expertise with the technical capacity to solve problems, particularly major global problems such as health and the environment. My interview was with a Nurse Assessor for an intermediate care services (IMC) in a community hospital. She stated that her role sometimes included working in front of the house, Accident and Emergency (A and E) admissions avoidance and stated that she found this quite overwhelming. I asked why she had to perform a role which appeared to be outside her remit and her response was that even though she had been trained for the role, there was a serious lack of qualified personnel so she and her colleagues had to rotate and share duties. She does not specifically do social care but because they work as a team, she tends to sign post to social care if patients do not fit the IMC criteria for rehabilitation. This role is currently evolving as they are working as an integrated discharge team that is, working in teams with social workers and hospital discharge coordinators to facilitate early and timely discharges. It was quite interesting how her role processes are not that dissimilar to those of a social worker, starting with assessment, moving through to planning, intervention finally monitoring, evaluation and review. Adams et al (2009). Presently the team is transitioning from using social care policies towards what is called a Trusted Assessor who can do all three roles, meaning that they will have to work within social care policies and legislation while assimilating the trusted assessor concept. It is a work in progress. The challenges related to her role are mainly friction in teams working collaboratively and no clear cut boundaries, hence blurring the roles. Above all, keeping up with the pace of the changing face and needs in Health and Social Care and the aging population was another challenge they had to deal with as a team on a regular basis. Demand outstrips supply and the need for services has been outstripped by lack of growth in infrastructure. She felt that her professional values were being compromised by the pressures of work. Reflecting on what she had told me, I referred to Hertzberg et al (2010) who argued that work motivation is intrinsic to the job and that conditions of employment and relations in the workplace have the capacity to demotivate. In this new structure of collaborative care (integrated discharge teams) she works with three social workers in the team. They work together to facilitate.Ã She refers and discusses relevant cases with them and they in turn will discuss and refer some patients to her if they feel that their needs can be met in intermediate care even if it means accessing IMC to reduce the care package. After the interview I was left with a myriad of dilemmas, but the one that stuck to my mind was how the generality of healthcare professionals are victims of legislation probably designed by people who spend most of their time looking for mistakes than solutions, as can be seen by the bad press that they usually get. Healthcare workers are supposed to abide by and adhere to certain statutes yet their professional competencies are being hindered by a lack of resources. (Adams, et al. pg 92 2009) Compared to its peers in the G7, a group of large developed economies, the UK is ranked sixth on healthcare expenditure. (Office of National Statistics, 2017) Words: 743 References: Adams, R. Dominelli, L. and Payne, M. (2009) Social work: themes, issues and critical debates. 3RD edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Bruce, L.Ã (2013) Reflective practice for social workers: a handbook for developing professional confidence.Ã Maidenhead: McGraw Hill Open University Press Coleman, James S. 1990. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Cunningham, J. and Cunningham, S. (2008) Sociology and social work. Exeter: Learning Matters. Egan, G. (2002) The skilled helper: a problem-management and opportunity-development approach to helpingÃ 7th edn. 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